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Completed Projects under Network Building


Dynamics of Development and Change in Rural Bihar 1981-2010


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: National Bank of Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)

The Dynamics of Development and Distribution in Rural Bihar’, is a longitudinal study of 36 villages in 6 districts of Bihar and was sponsored by NABARD. This unique data set is representative of the entire state. Two previous major research projects, undertaken in 1981-85 and 1998-99 collected in-depth village information for all the 36 villages on religion, caste, educational and marital status, migration status, mortality, land ownership, tenancy, wage labour, assets, debts and working of various government sponsored programmes. The new round of data of 2010-2011 was collated by a revisit to the households and successor households of 1998-99, to shed fresh light on long term economic and social change during this intervening period of 30 years. The project examined to what extent, and in what ways, different groups in rural Bihar have participated in and benefited from development and state action over the last 30 years. The data set also includes information on change in production, income, employment, education, health, nutrition and poverty.

Second Delhi Human Development (Improving Livelihoods and Bridging Disparities)-2013


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: Govt of NCT of Delhi

The Delhi Human Development Report 2013 aimed to assess Delhi’s progress and delineate with its challenges and devise appropriate strategies. The basic thrust of the report was improving livelihoods and quality of life. The Report discussed various aspects of the prevailing human development scenario in Delhi, including employment and educational opportunities, the healthcare, basic services and amenities, as well as the issue of public safety and security that has been a source of widespread concern in the recent past. While encompassing both the achievements and emerging challenges that constantly confront this vibrant city, the Report not only relied on the latest statistics and available information, but also analysed the findings of a large survey of about 8000 households, which was carried out to understand the perceptions and aspirations of the citizens belonging to various groups. In essence, this Report is both a mirror to the city and an endeavour to promote inclusion and equity at various levels. The Report prepared by IHD was published by the Academic Foundation and was released by the Vice President of India in the presence of the Chief Minister of Delhi on 31 August 2013 at New Delhi.

SARNET South Asia Research Network on Employment and Social Protection for Inclusive Growth


Project Lead Authority: Sandip Sarkar
Sponsor: International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada

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Examine Inter-Linkage between Women's Education and Early Marriage in India: A Regional Analysis


Project Lead Authority: Prashant Singh
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

The main objective of the proposed study is based on the following areas – Understanding the role of ideational change in explaining cross-regional variations in women’s schooling and age at marriage; Test of the strength of a casual association or pathways of influence between educational level and pattern, e.g. orientation towards professional/technical education, and age at marriage; In-depth observational studies to unravel the complete interplay and function – both at family and community level – regarding modern idea, attitude, and norms about women’s roles – both social and economic and its influence on marriage timings and decision making; Lastly, a key research thrust would be to distinguish between possible cultural differences in the above dimensions – for e.g. metros, medium and small towns.

Poverty, Inequality and Violence in Urban India: Towards more Inclusive Urban Planning


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Delhi

The exploratory study links the processes of urban development with the emergence of a non-violent or safe city in the Indian context. The research work aims to extend the existing knowledge base on this topic in India. The objectives of the study are to understand the potential and possible pathways through which urban planning and its governance mechanism become drivers of conflicts and violence; conversely, to understand the potential of inclusive and participatory urban planning in facilitating social inclusion; to fill gaps in existing research on issues of urban planning, conflict and violence and to contribute to the capacity building of young researchers in India on conducting research on sensitive topics like urban violence through innovative research tools including participatory methods. The study will comprise literature review on urban violence and setting up the research; involve inception of the research in the case study cities; involve primary research in these case study cities through quantitative and qualitative tools and will involve research findings dissemination and outreach.

The exploratory study links the processes of urban development with the emergence of a non-violent or safe city in the Indian context. The research work aims to extend the existing knowledge base on this topic in India. The objectives of the study are to understand the potential and possible pathways through which urban planning and its governance mechanism become drivers of conflicts and violence; conversely, to understand the potential of inclusive and participatory urban planning in facilitating social inclusion; to fill gaps in existing research on issues of urban planning, conflict and violence and to contribute to the capacity building of young researchers in India on conducting research on sensitive topics like urban violence through innovative research tools including participatory methods. The study will comprise literature review on urban violence and setting up the research; involve inception of the research in the case study cities; involve primary research in these case study cities through quantitative and qualitative tools and will involve research findings dissemination and outreach.

An Evaluation Study of Strengthening Community-Centred and gender Responsive Provisioning and Use of Sanitation Services Replica


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: Centre for Advocacy and Research (CFAR)

This project aimed to undertake a midterm evaluation of the awareness-building intervention based project relating to sanitation, water and hygiene initiated by the Center for Advocacy and Research (CFAR), in collaboration with the Convergence Mission of Delhi Government for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The initiative began in June 2012 with the purpose of generating awareness, among the women and girls in the selected clusters on matters related to water, health, sanitation, hygiene, sewerage, and garbage disposal. To achieve this goal and further, create a sense of ownership within the community, the intervention called for the formation of groups that were comprised of women and subsequently, even adolescent girls. After initial activities, the project began forming women’s forums by August 2012. At the time of our midterm evaluation, there were seven women’s forums, including one adolescent group.

The quality of sanitation services, water supply, and hygiene in urban localities occupied predominantly by the poor begs for action for improvement. There are multiple fronts in these sectors which urgently require attention. For example, not only is the supply of services inadequate in general, there is also little recognition and articulation of the fact that the provision of public facilities is lacking. The question of urban health and sanitation conditions becomes especially complex because a large number of these underserved slum settlements are unauthorised and therefore, there is little community awareness about the means through which residents, can express their grievances and concerns. Moreover, the multiple authorities that operate in isolation in these areas are often not prepared to engage with the populations livings in these peripheral regions of the city.

The midterm evaluation study focused on 18 location clusters - both intensive and extensive areas - categorized based on the activities undertaken in the project. A total of 1361 households were covered in the survey. In addition, several focused group discussions (FGDs) were conducted among forum members and non-members. By covering at least one half of the households which were surveyed for the baseline, the evaluation study examines the changes over time.

Overall, access to water has improved over the intervention period. Only 15 per cent of the households had a DJB connection at home as per the baseline, which has increased now to 25 per cent in the midterm. The knowledge regarding water storage and cleanliness has improved. About 22 per cent of the households which initially did not purify water reported doing so. While boiling is the common method of purifying water, the high cost that goes towards obtaining fuel for boiling water is an important concern. Four per cent of households reported that CFAR members were instrumental in inducing this change, while other households credited ASHA workers and Anganwadi sevikas for the change.

During the intervention period, women’s groups became more proactive in demanding improved sanitation. They filed a total of 14 petitions with DUSIB related to the condition of CTCs, although many of these were redirected to the MCD. Many individuals report that they now have free access to community toilets as opposed to the base line. Midterm surveys shows that the access to sanitation improved as the proportion of households that have their own toilets increased from 20 per cent to 26 per cent, while proportion of shared toilets also increased from 2 per cent to 3 per cent. As a result, the proportion of households depending on community toilets declined from 60 per cent to 55 per cent, while the practice of open defecation, as per the stated objectives, also decreased from 18 per cent to 16 per cent.

Many households constructed toilets within their household premises, primarily to maintain their privacy as well as due to security concerns, shrinking open spaces, and high density. A few households reported that awareness campaigns had an influence on their decision. Ninety three per cent of the households felt that their social status had been improved since they became owners of a toilet.

The behavior change component on hand washing proved to be hugely successful as people now wash their hands more frequently and a larger number of them use soap while doing so. Five per cent of the respondents stated that CFAR members were their primary source of information on this practice.

Post-intervention, garbage storage practices within the community have witnessed an overall improvement. Fewer people dispose off children’s excreta in open drains. Similarly, the proportion of households that store garbage in closed containers as opposed to leaving them in the open increased from 69 per cent to 79 per cent. To allow for safer disposal, MCD vans now visit more areas that are situated away from the community dhalaos. The overall behavior change can be associated with the methods of proper waste disposal that were emphasised in the weekly group meetings and IEC (information, education, and communication) materials.

Over the intervention period, the use of sanitary napkins increased drastically and the credit for this change goes to improved literacy, awareness, and availability. About one fourth of the respondents suggested that the increase in napkin use is due to the spread of literacy. One third attributed awareness generation as an important reason and another one third stated the better availability increased the use of napkins.

Job Search and Hiring Practices in the Indian Urban Labour Market


Project Lead Authority: Bhim Reddy
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

The Study seeks to create awareness amongst researchers, job seekers, employers, middlemen and policy makers about the various dimensions of urban labour markets, which can result in equitable allocation of jobs. The research studies urban labour markets in India and the process of job search, hiring practices and discrimination prevalent in the labour market. It looks at how labour market institutions, both formal and informal institutions, have evolved over the years and their role in promoting labour market efficiency in matching demand and supply of the urban labourer. The focus of this research is on mapping the process of job search and hiring practices across occupations, sectors and firms in selected regions in India and identifying sources of exclusion and discrimination prevalent in the urban labour market. The study largely involves collection of primary data from various sources and analysis of job seekers, employees and employers with case studies of domestic workers, HR firms, placement agencies, temp-agencies, construction firms and middlemen. An important aim of this project is to contribute to research in this largely unexplored area of labour studies in India. The study covers National Capital Region (NCR) and Eastern Region of Bihar and Jharkhand. The research is expected to generate a huge databank and produce working papers, policy briefs and organize several conferences, seminars and workshops on the same theme.

Growth, Urbanisation and Rural Urban Linkages in Bihar


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: IGC International Growth Centre

The study aims to understand the process of urbanization, rural-urban linkages, sectoral development and poverty in Bihar to answer larger questions related to growth. The links between the different size-classes of towns along with surrounding rural areas have not been studies. Studies of towns/cities and their regions are needed to bring out these aspects. This study will cover two regions of Bihar; three towns(different size-classes) and surrounding areas in the relatively prosperous South-West Region(Patna, Nalanda, Hilsa) and three towns(different size-classes) and their surrounding areas in the North-East Region (Purnia, Araria, Banmakhi) which is among the poorest in the country. The study will use both primary and secondary data and also quantitative and qualitative research tools. The project will be conducted in active consultation with the Government of Bihar, Government of India, trade unions, industry associations, bi-lateral and multi-lateral organizations. An inception workshop will be held. Project outputs will be working papers, journal articles, policy briefs, policy influence report and a book.

Preparation of First Human Development Report (HDR) , UTs of Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli


Project Lead Authority: Akhilesh K. Sharma
Sponsor: Planning & Statistic Department, UT Administration of Daman & Diu

The HDR discusses and analyses both the classical human development indicators pertaining to income, education, health and tourism as well as the contemporary concepts of multidimensional indicators. The broader scope which the HDR is envisaged to take into account includes:
- Structure of territorial economy, sectoral compositions, importance and growth; structure, growth and composition of employment; organised and unorganized sectoral employment; trends and patterns of employment; educated unemployment; discrimination in the labour market and employment of women and other vulnerable groups and trends in poverty and inequality.
- Agricultural production, productivity, irrigation extent, major crop, animal husbandry, use of fertilizes and manures, extent of farm mechanization, agricultural credit, land holding, agriculture infrastructure etc.
- Enrolment in preschooling; dropouts or non-retention especially at higher levels of schooling; girls education; access to secondary education, social access concerns for the disadvantaged and minority groups; Right to Education (RTE): promises and challenges; public schools and private institutions; capacities and quality of training institutions – especially those of teaching personnel; access to and quality of higher and technical educational facilities; functioning of schemes such as ICDS/Anganwadis; Midday meal scheme; scholarships; stipends; subsidies for textbooks/stationary; fee waivers; and so on.
- Health components includes morbidity and mortality profile of the population, status of maternal and child health; access to healthcare facilities; utilization of public health and ICDS facilities; financing of health care; health expenditure and variations; financial risk protection; Role of NRHM and RSBY coverage; public perception on health care service delivery; policy responses – review of health programmes; inter-sectoral convergence of public goals.
- Issues related with the quality of life and access to basic services such as housing, transport, sanitation, water, electricity, environmental policies and safety issues.
- To understand the environmental concerns relating to human development in these UTs.
- Examination of causes of declining sex ratio in the age group of 0-6 years in both UTs.

The aims of the study require a multi-stage, stratified sampling approach to generate representative samples. The Census urban wards, Census Enumeration Blocks (CEBs), and households will form the first, second and third stage sample units, respectively

One of the crucial aspects in any sampling design is to decide the adequate sample size which adequately captures the diversity in the study population and ensures robustness of key indicators. In certain cases, as for the HDR, it is also essential that the sample size allows group-level estimation of the key indicators (where the groups may represent distinct spatial, demographic or socioeconomic attributes). A total of 10,000 households will be included for the proposed perception survey. The sample size is roughly 8% of the total number of household in each districts based on Census 2011 figures. The proposed study will be conducted in all three districts of UT. Out of 138 villages and wards, 103 will be included in the study. Out of 65 villages of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, 30 villages will be randomly selected in this proposed study. However, all urban wards of Dadra and Nagar Haveli along will villages and wards of Daman and Diu will be included in the survey. From each urban wards and villages households will be selected based on PPS.

Along with capturing the socioeconomic heterogeneity of the districts in the proposed HDR, another key challenge is to ensure the optimum representation of migrants and fisherman community of the UTs. It is proposed that the survey will provide certain “Quotas” to these specific groups of households. To illustrate, based on screening survey proportional allocation of the sample size will be provided to those urban wards and villages which has higher number of households belonged to the migrants and fisherman community. The survey will conduct few qualitative interviews along with focus group discussions (FGD’s) to understand the different dimensions including training, workplace environment etc. from specific groups like industrial workers, factory workers, street workers etc.

Microeconomic Impacts of Non Communicable Diseases in India


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

The project is concerned with investigating the microeconomic impacts arising out of major non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and their accompanying risk-factors in India. Our main aim is to test how household consumption responds to the higher financial demands associated with both direct costs of medical treatment and indirect costs arising out of productivity losses and foregone wage incomes, and whether consumption flows are insured in face of such longer-term shocks. From the perspective of equity, we are concerned with how households with differential resource endowments, livelihoods, and nature of the ailments, respond differentially to the shocks, and how, as a resultant, aggregate welfare outcomes of the households are influenced. The proposed project will use data from different sources, both secondary household survey databases as well as a primary survey.

System of Promoting Approprioate National Dynamism for Agriculture and Nutrition (SPANDAN) Disconnect in India Phase II and prep


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (IGIDR), Mumbai

The Institute for Human Development (IHD) on behalf of the UN’s World Food Programme (WFP) had undertaken an analysis of the dimensions of food security at the sub-state or district level for 8 states of India – Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra in 2009-10. The purpose of this exercise is to:

1.Identify the districts/regions and social groups most affected by food insecurity; and
2. Suggest policy interventions for improving food security among food insecure regions and social groups.

Recognizing that reduction of acute poverty is the key to reducing hunger, the analysis began by choosing the likely variables that affect food security along the three axes of availability, access and absorption. A composite index was constructed for each district based on twelve identified indicators which reflect these three dimensions. The availability-related variables considered here were agricultural production in per capita value terms, proportion of forest area, extent of irrigation and rural connectivity in terms of villages with access to paved roads. The six variables considered for the access-to-food dimension include proportion of agricultural labourers, ratio of working age population, monthly per capita consumption expenditure, casual wage rate of rural persons and female literacy rate. Access to safe drinking water and primary health services were the two variables considered for the absorption index.

The values of districts on each of these twelve variables were combined to develop a Food SecurityIndex (FSI), on the basis of which each district was ranked. Districts were also ranked by their performance in food security outcome (FSO) measures, under-five mortality and proportion of underweight children.

Under the SPANDAN project, it is proposed to update the existing Food Security Atlases (FSA) for Bihar and Odisha by incorporating new variables/indicators while maintaining a similar analytical approach. Given the focus of the project on understanding the agriculture-nutrition linkages, the analysis can be broad-based to accommodate additional indicators concerning agricultural production, food intake etc. A strong need for such an updated FNSA can be identified based on targeted policy interventions in the more ‘insecure’ districts based on the mapping provided by the exercise.

The earlier exercise had used information from alternative data-sources for relevant indicators in the analysis and mapping of districts on the basis of ‘food security outcomes’. In the proposed exercise, these data-sources will be updated wherever available, keeping the (definitions of) indicators unchanged. However, for some variables which were taken from the Census of India 2001, district-level information may not be available during the proposed timeline of the exercise, i.e. mid 2012-2014. In that case alternative data sources will be used. Additionally, programme data at the district-level will be used for constructing relevant indicators.

Violence against Women in Private Realms in India: A Study in Rural Areas of Four Selected States


Project Lead Authority: Dev Nathan
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

This research aims to study violence against women and girls in both the public and private realms, and explore its implications on the economically and socially vulnerable and marginalised communities, that is, on those belonging to the Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs). The overall objective of this research project is to explore the nature and pattern of violence against women in rural India, in both public and private spaces; to analyse in depth the role played by various factors, both institutional and others, in perpetuating violence; and to provide a framework for agenda for possible actions that would help mitigate the violence against women.

The four states being covered under the purview of the study are Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Bihar and Jharkhand. The study would be conducted in the four states on the basis of relevant socio-economic indicators such as the crime rate, human development index, sex ratio and gender development index. Besides enhancing research and promoting a multi-disciplinary understanding with regard to these under-researched issues, the proposed research seeks to inform and influence strategies pertaining to the reduction and prevention of violence, by identifying positive response mechanisms by the State and/or or the community. Thus the policy goal of the present study is to identify institutions and practices that help in mitigating violence against women in order to inform policies that could strengthen such institutions and practices. Both quantitative and qualitative survey methods and review would be used in the project.

Political Economy of Development, Poverty and Change in Bihar


Project Lead Authority: Sandip Sarkar
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

Based on longitudinal data since early 1980s and a panel data of households since late 1990s onwards from a set of representative villages of rural Bihar, this research project will analyse in depth the various aspects of development and poverty and the factors responsible for the changes therein. The study will also analyse as to how the development and change have affected the various groups of rural society.

This project aims to analyse in-depth the patterns of development and change in the levels of living and well being which have occurred during the last three and half decades in rural Bihar. These changes will be analysed encompassing various aspects of political economy of the state considering among others aspects as such as caste, class, gender relations etc which will suit this research to discuss as to how the benefits of development and growth are being distributed among various strata of population. The project has been designed around a survey of villages studied in early 1980s at AN Sinha Institute of Social Studies (ANSISS) at Patna and resurvey of these villages in late 1990s and further during 2009-11 at the Institute for Human Development (IHD), New Delhi. The first round of IHD resurvey was led by Professor Alakh N. Sharma who had also participated in the first study at ANSISS. The second round of resurvey was led by Professor Sharma and Dr. Gerry Rodgers, currently a Visiting Professor at IHD, who had also co-directed the first study at ANSISS with Professor Pradhan H. Prasad. The present research proposal will include both the analyses of information from the earlier rounds, bulk of which have not been analysed so far and the collection of fresh primary data to examine key dimensions of change. This study being largely based on longitudinal data apart from analyzing the changes in poverty and development, will have a major methodological contribution to such analyses and will form a solid data base for future research on Bihar.

This research project will address several inter-related themes covering development, poverty, livelihood and pattern of changes in them. The findings of the study will be useful in formulating a policy agenda for long-term inclusive development in rural Bihar. It will also provide a sound database covering key economic and social issues which can inform future policy development as well as future research endeavour in the state as well as similar studies elsewhere. Some of the areas of agenda for policy and action would concern issues such as the policies with regard to labour markets and employment, migration policies, gender relations, inclusion and participation, prospects for the development of high value agriculture and options for non-agricultural sources of employment, enhancement of human development, local participation and cooperation and better governance for inclusive development.

Evaluating Impacts of Nodal Anganwadi Centres in Bihar, India: A Quasi-Experimental Approach


Project Lead Authority: Prashant Singh
Sponsor: 3ie- International Initiative for Impact Evaluation

The primary evaluation questions to be addressed in this study, in relation to assessing the impacts and effectiveness of Uddeepika include:
• Its impact on the quality of services provided and functionality of AWCs including the nodal AWC;
• Its impact on household’s use of the AWC and household knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding best practices;
• Identification of factors contributing to the heterogeneity of program impacts on both AWCs and households; and
• Identification of pathways of influence, distinguishing between network and individual effects.

Exploring Learning Achievement and Classroom Experience in English Medium Low Cost Private Schools: Does English as Medium of In


Project Lead Authority: Dr. Alok Kumar
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

The project aims to explore in low cost English medium private schools at the primary level, how learning achievement in English as a subject and in other subjects which have textbooks and instruction in English, is influenced by the use of English as a medium of instruction. In the context of the poor socio-economic and educational background of the students attending such schools, and the usual practice of taking private tuition, the study will analyse the implications for social equity in terms of accessing a meaningful schooleducation.
The present area of interest is relatively under‐researched. The studytherefore will use mainly primary data based on (i) a household survey, (ii) a school survey, (iii) learning achievement tests and in‐depth interviews with children and (iv) Focus Group Discussionswith parents.
Working papers on the main research questions and hypothesis will be published, alongwith a book giving the full results.Conferences: Various conferences will be organized to present the results and engage with the academic and larger community.

Women Entrepreneurs in the New Indian Middle Class: Micro and Micro perspectives


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

The overall objective of the study is to provide guidelines and recommendations to encourage entrepreneurship, particularly among middle class women, who otherwise tend to opt out of the labour force. Using the macro and micro research lenses, the study has the following objectives: The macro objective is to understand the links between class, caste, religion and educational attainment with entrepreneurship among urban women; while the first micro objective is to assess the attitudes and perceptions towards entrepreneurship among female youth in the higher education institutions in the national capital region (NCR) of Delhi, India; and a second micro objective is to study the enterprise creation process, challenges and aspirations of middle class women entrepreneurs from different industry sectors.

Macro-Economic Impact of MGNREGA in India: An Analysis in CGE Modeling Framework


Project Lead Authority: Akhilesh K. Sharma
Sponsor: Partnership for Economic Policy (PEP)

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Labour Conditions in the Automobile Industry in China and India


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (Department of Public Policy)

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Public Programs, Social Safety Nets and Food Security in Rural Bihar: Dimensions, Interactions and Reforms Option


Project Lead Authority: S. Mahendra Dev
Sponsor: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFRI)

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Poverty, Migration and Development in Rural Bihar 1981-2015


Project Lead Authority: Amrita Datta
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

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Dynamics of Development Livelihood and Poverty in Rural Jharkhand


Project Lead Authority: Marcus Barla
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

This study tries to understand the specific causes of backwardness in rural Jharkhand. How does one reduce poverty and deprivation in rural Jharkhand, specifically among social groups? How does one increase employment? How does one ensure that development is inclusive? These are principal developmental concerns of the state. For the purpose of this research project we will use the multidimensional framework of poverty which includes access to better education, access to employment, access to health facilities, access to physical and financial assets, access to resources to avail food, shelter and other essential goods and services. This project aims to analyse the change in the levels of living and well being which have occurred during the last one and half decade in rural Jharkhand as well as deliberate upon the emerging challenges and strategies to meet them.

The study uses both primary and secondary level data. The secondary information would be collected from various departments of the state government and other relevant published materials are being utilised. These data will be analysed to study the main trends and patterns at macro level over time and to identify the gaps in development and challenges therein. Primary survey is being conducted in 12 villages in Jharkhand. Quanlitative data will also be gathered by conducting focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with key informants. Some case studies will also be developed based on the interviews.

The proposed research project on “Dynamics of Development, Livelihood and Poverty” would empirically examine the various in-depth factors for persistence of poverty and vulnerability in the state. It will also provide broader strategies for meeting the challenges not only for general groups but also separately for scheduled tribes, women as well as those residing in remote areas. It will help the state government and other agencies in monitoring the progress in their efforts and suitably changing the strategies. There will be an end of project research report.

Caste in Urban India: Manifestation and Inequalities


Project Lead Authority: Bhim Reddy
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

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Activities Under Delhi Government Chair on Human Development Issues - re initiation of chair on human development


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: Govt of NCT of Delhi

The Government of the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi has instituted a Delhi Human Development Chair at IHD, thereby recognizing the research contributions made by the Institute in various areas of human development on Delhi, including the preparation of the first Delhi Human Development Report. The preparation of the second Human Development Report which encompasses a comprehensive public perception for Delhi has been completed and published. The objective of the Chair is to undertake policy-relevant studies on various human development concerns pertaining to urban areas, with a focus on the National Capital Territory of Delhi. The other objectives include sensitization and awareness generation of key stakeholders through Human Development (HD) advocacy at all levels; assessment of existing HD statistical information systems (in collaboration with Directorate of Economics and Statistics (DES) and other relevant departments) to ensure the strengthening of statistical system for monitoring HD progress and assessment and monitoring of social sector service delivery through undertaking bottleneck analysis of specific schemes in order to improve its effectiveness and functioning. A dedicated website is being developed (jointly hoisted by IHD and GNCTD) to showcase results and research outputs under the DHDR and allied activities. Media releases in the form of popular articles in newspapers and blogs are also being done; knowledge sharing is also being conducted through policy briefs and other policy output.

Multiplier effect of increasing female employment: Assessing impacts in urban Centres


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

The overall objective of the study is to provide guidelines and recommendations to encourage entrepreneurship, particularly among middle class women, who otherwise tend to opt out of the labour force. Using the macro and micro research lenses, the study has the following objectives: The macro objective is to understand the links between class, caste, religion and educational attainment with entrepreneurship among urban women; while the first micro objective is to assess the attitudes and perceptions towards entrepreneurship among female youth in the higher education institutions in the national capital region (NCR) of Delhi, India; and a second micro objective is to study the enterprise creation process, challenges and aspirations of middle class women entrepreneurs from different industry sectors.

Improving Connectivity Role of Aviation in Socio-Economic Development of Remote Locations: The Case of Andaman & Nicobar Islands


Project Lead Authority: Sanat Kaul
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

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Revisiting the Measurement of Poverty in India


Project Lead Authority: Rohini Nayyar
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

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Land and Livelihoods


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: Action-Aid India

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Voices of the Poor Poverty in Peoples Per Capita in India


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: Shastri Indo Canadian Institute

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Bihar Development Report


Impact of Gender Bias on Children in 0-6 Years Age Group


Project Lead Authority: Sudha Deshpande
Sponsor: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, GoI

While analysing the contribution of different factors to the worsening of the sex ratio in the population group of 0-6 years, this study suggests policy measures with respect to under-enumeration, mortality and foeticide. It is based on secondary data and primary surveys both quantitative and qualitative surveys in Maharashtra and Uttaranchal.

Evaluation and Impact Study of Centrally Sponsored Scheme 'Intensive Dairy Development Programme (IDDP)


Project Lead Authority: Ramashray Singh
Sponsor: Ministry of Agriculture(Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries), GOI

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Globalisation, Labour Market and Employment Security for Workers in the Unorganised Sector in India


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: Indo-Dutch Programme for Alternatives in Development (IDPAD)

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Committee Constituted to Review and Look into All Aspects of the Development of Jharkhand


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: Planning Commission, GoI

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District Level Monitoring of All Development Programmes (Excluding NREGA and PMGSY)


Project Lead Authority: Ramashray Singh
Sponsor: Ministry of Rural Development, GoI

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Manipur State Development Report


Project Lead Authority: Atul Sarma
Sponsor: Planning Commission, GoI

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Survey of Homless and Shelterless in Delhi


Project Lead Authority: Shipra Maitra
Sponsor: Govt of NCT of Delhi

Sponsored by the Delhi Government, this survey entailed carrying out a headcount of the homeless and shelterless people in Delhi. It also examines the socio-economic background of the problem, and in addition, focuses on street children.

A Baseline Survey of Minority Concentration Districts of India


Project Lead Authority: Ashok Pankaj
Sponsor: Ministry of Minority Affairs (MOMA)

The Institute has been conducting baseline surveys of 25 districts with a concentration of minority populations across the eight states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra, Kerala, Karnataka and Uttarakhand. The study, which has been sponsored by the Ministry of Minority Affairs and Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICCSR), entails the collection of detailed data on the socio-economic conditions of about 900 households in each district, apart from village level data. The draft reports of all the districts have been submitted to ICSSR.

Evaluation and Impact Assessment Study of the Educational Scholarship Programmes of Ministry of Miniority Affairs (MOMA)


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: Ministry of Minority Affairs (MOMA)

This study examined the implementation of the four educational scholarship schemes being implemented by the Ministry of Minority Affairs across selected locations in seven states of India. The four schemes constitute the pre-matriculation, post-matriculation, merit-cum-means (MCM), and free coaching programmes. The impact of these schemes was assessed across rural and urban locations for all minority students from the economically weaker backgrounds. The outreach accessibility and effectiveness of these schemes for girls and boys of minority households, including Muslims, Christians, Buddhists, Sikhs and Parsis, depending on their concentration in the study areas, were examined through the purposive survey. The pre-matriculation and post-matriculation educational schemes are operational in all the project states, while the MCM and free coaching programmes are reported to be in operation in Jaipur, Gulbarga and Bathinda.
The study reveals the immense demand for such educational support, as illustrated by the large number of minority students applying for the scholarships, especially at the pre-matriculation and post-matriculation levels. However, very few students are, in fact, provided these scholarships in comparison to the number who apply for them each year. In most areas, the number of beneficiaries has been increasing over the years. The major difficulties reported are in the areas of opening a bank account, and obtaining information about the scholarships by deserving students. The need to enhance the amount of scholarship and cover a larger section of minority students has also been identified in the course of the study.
Seven reports have been submitted to ICSSR, that is, one for each of the areas under study, including Araria, Bihar; Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh; Parbhani, Maharashtra; Chennai, Tamil Nadu; Gulbarga, Karnataka; Bathinda, Punjab; and Jaipur Rajasthan.

Stree Shakti Project (Evaluation Report)


Project Lead Authority: Shipra Maitra
Sponsor: Department of Social Welfare Government of National Capital Territory of Department of Social Welfare, Government of National

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Shelterless Persons in Delhi (Challenging Inclusive Growth Policies)


Evaluation Report of State Resource Centre


Project Lead Authority: Vandana Parashar
Sponsor: Directorate of Adult Education, GoI, New Delhi

to be add

External Evaluation of State Resource Centre Rajasthan (Jaipur)


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: Directorate of Adult Education, GoI, New Delhi

to be add

Labour Regulation in Uttar Pradesh


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor:

to be add

Identity Interest and Coalition: Changing Nature of Politics in India


Project Lead Authority: Shreya Sarawgi
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

to be add

District Level Monitoring of TSC and Swajaldhara Programmes in Jharkhand (Quarterly Report)


Project Lead Authority: Ramashray Singh
Sponsor: Ministry of Rural Development (Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation)

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Trafficking of Children in Two Flood Affected Districts of Bihar (Stolen Children)


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: Save the Children

Conducted in two poor and flood programme district of Bihar, the study analysed the extent of child trafficking in the larger context and found that approximately 7.7 per cent of the children in the sample were actually trafficked. They were sent either with family members who transported them to their employers, and left them under their control, or were actually delivered into the hands of third parties in the village itself, and thence on, were under the total control of the latter. Under-employment among adults in the area emerged as the main reason for children getting trafficked, as it was mentioned by 63 per cent of the households of the trafficked children. The study made rural recommendations for various stakeholders to address this problem.

Survey of Street Children


Project Lead Authority: Balwant Mehta
Sponsor: Save the Children

The Institute has conducted a survey of street children in Delhi for Ashadeep Foundation as part of its project titled ‘Stronger Voices to Excluded Children in Government and NGO Policies and Programmes’, which was supported by Save the Children. The project sought to facilitate access of socially excluded children to benefits from development programmes, policies and schemes. It also estimated the number of street children in Delhi and also studied their socio-economic condition.

Development, Deprivation and Discontent: Challenges in the Extremist Affected Areas (Round table discussion)


Project Lead Authority: Rashmi Bhaskaran
Sponsor: Planning Commission, GoI

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Trade and Livelihoods in Asia (Implications of Regional Trade Agreements for Food Security)


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Action-Aid International Asia

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The 2008 Kosi Floods their Impact on Livelihoods, the Reactions and Coping Strategies of those Affected and Options for Recovery


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), New Delhi

The International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction Secretariat is coordinating the 2009 Global Assessment Report, which is related to the Indian component of the report covering the devastation and displacement of people caused by floods in the Kosi river in Bihar. Sponsored by UNDP, this study involves an extensive survey of the five most affected districts of the Kosi region and examines the existing local capacities in coping with massive floods as well as the role of the government and other actors in the sustenance of livelihoods during the occurrence of the floods. The report suggests the need for policy restructuring to integrate the government’s preparedness and response to such calamities in the development schemes itself.

Employment in India Role of Employers and Government in Its Promotion


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: International Labour Organisation (ILO)

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Employment Generation in Uttaranchal Constraints and Opportunities


Project Lead Authority: RP Mamgain
Sponsor: Planning Commission, GoI

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Impact Assessment Study of the Programmes of the Ministry of Rural Development in West Tripura District of Tripura


Project Lead Authority: Ramashray Singh
Sponsor: Ministry of Rural Development, GoI

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The Restructuring of the Unorganised Sector in India


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Planning Commission, GoI

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Impact Assessment Study of the Programmes of the Ministry of Rural Development in DODA District of Jammu and Kashmir


Project Lead Authority: Sheila Bhalla
Sponsor: Ministry of Rural Development, GoI

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The Nowhere Children A Study of Daily Practice and Hidden Concerns


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: Indo-Dutch Programme for Alternatives in Development (IDPAD)

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Tracing Migrants in Delhi from Bihar: An Enquiry on the Role of Migration as a Development Facilitator in Poor Origin Areas


Project Lead Authority: Balwant Mehta
Sponsor: Sanei, Pakistan

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Child and Adolescent Domestic Workers A Study of Delhi and Ranchi


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: International Labour Organisation (ILO)

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Delhi: The City and the Capital : A Status Report


Project Lead Authority: Shipra Maitra
Sponsor: Govt of NCT of Delhi

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Growth Prospects of Economy of Delhi


Project Lead Authority: Ashok K Mathur
Sponsor: Planning Commission, GoI

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Alternative Policy Instruments for Poverty Reduction: A Comparative Study of Andhra Pradesh and Bihar


Project Lead Authority: Dev Nathan
Sponsor: International Labour Organisation (ILO)

Sponsored by ILO, this study was a part of the Bihar research programme entitled, ‘Aiming at Inclusive Development in Bihar: The Dynamics of Change over 30 Years (1980-2010), and the Emerging Policy Framework’. The study explored the relative effectiveness of three policy approaches (growth and development, employment opportunities, and income shortfall) in the Indian states of Bihar and Andhra Pradesh (AP), while drawing on long-term longitudinal data pertaining to households and villages in Bihar, and secondary data in both the states.

The study found that in Bihar, the all-India rate of economic growth and the recent increase in construction activities had both contributed to an increase in income among the low-skilled and poorly educated families. The all-India growth figures had contributed to higher incomes for the poor, while the state's own construction boom increased non-farm employment in rural Bihar.

In AP, economic growth within the state itself had increased the productive base of the economy, something that was not visible in Bihar. In addition, the contribution of various social security programmes in AP was much higher than that in Bihar. Overall, the contribution of growth and employment with social security and related redistributive measures led to a substantial impact in reducing poverty in AP. In Bihar, on the other hand, state-based growth itself was only a feature of the last decade and it was not supplemented as much as in AP by the government's redistributive measures. These differences between the longer periods of growth and the strengthening of the productive base of the state economy and the relative roles of redistributive measures in the two states, might explain the much higher impact on poverty in AP than in Bihar.

Rural Transformation in India: Role of Non Farm Sector


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Planning Commission, GoI

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Economic Liberalisation and Labour Market Flexibility in India


Project Lead Authority: LK Deshpande
Sponsor: Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MSPI), GoI

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TLC Evaluation in Keonjhar (Orissa)


Project Lead Authority: Amitabh Kundu
Sponsor: Ministry of Human Resource Development, GoI

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Strikes and Lockouts in India


Project Lead Authority: Ruddar Datt
Sponsor: Ministry of Labour, GoI

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Towards Empowerment: Experiences of Organising Women Workers in India


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: International Labour Organisation (ILO)

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Informal Sector in India


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: International Labour Organisation (ILO)

The study critically reviews the strategies and policies adopted so far in India with regard to the informal sector and analyses their implications in the present context.

Rural Labour Migration in Bihar


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MSPI), GoI

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Evaluating the Impact of Integrated Dairy Development Programme on the Socio-Economic Conditions of Small Marginal Farmers, Land


Project Lead Authority: Anjani Kumar
Sponsor: Department of Animal Husbandry

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Tribal Migration from Jharkhand


Project Lead Authority: Harishwar Dayal
Sponsor: Ministry of Labour, GoI

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Child Labour in Textile Industry of Varanasi


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: VV Giri National Labour Institute

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Gender and Poverty in Rural Bihar


Project Lead Authority: V. Gayathri
Sponsor: Department of women and Child Development, GOI

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Evaluation of Anti-Poverty Programme in Uttar Pradesh


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Planning Commission, GoI

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Investing in the Poor-A Food Bank Scheme for Poor Households


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)

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Development of a Vulnerability to Debt Bondage Index


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: International Labour Organisation (ILO)

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Evaluation of Jan Shiksha Sansthan, Sirsa (Haryana) and Narendrapur (West Bengal)


Project Lead Authority: Vandana Parashar
Sponsor: Ministry of Human Resource Development, GoI

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Gender Budget Analysis: A Case of Bihar


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Department of women and Child Development, GOI

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Poverty, Levels of Living and Employment Structure in the Small and Medium Towns


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MSPI), GoI

This study measures the incidence of poverty, as also the changes therein and the employment structure and the changes in the same over time among the medium and small towns in major Indian states. Apart from analysing the secondary data, the study also intensively covers the states of Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Gujarat by collecting data at micro levels on municipal finance and development activities.

Financing of Elementary Education in India: The Case of Bihar


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), New Delhi

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External Evaluation of Post Literacy Programme in Jehanabad (Bihar)


Project Lead Authority: Balwant Mehta
Sponsor: Ministry of Human Resource Development, GoI

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Evaluation of Rural Development Programme in West Tripura District


Project Lead Authority: KG Iyer
Sponsor: Ministry of Human Resource Development, GoI

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Evaluation of Rural Development Programme in Aizwal District


Project Lead Authority: Balwant Mehta
Sponsor: Ministry of Rural Development, GoI

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Development of Delhi: Problems and Opportunities


Project Lead Authority: Shipra Maitra
Sponsor: Govt of NCT of Delhi

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Success and Effectiveness of CBR approach to Rehabilitation of the Disabled-A Study of the CBR programme Run by NGOs in the Stat


Project Lead Authority: Rana Pratap Singh
Sponsor: Ministry of Social Justice and Employment, GoI

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Agricultural Diversification in Eastern Region: Potentials and Problems


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)

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Course Curriculum for the Study of Human Development in India Universities


Project Lead Authority: Ashok K Mathur
Sponsor: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), New Delhi

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Micro and Small Enterprises in India and UP: Employment and Related Dimensions


Project Lead Authority: Vandana Parashar
Sponsor: International Labour Organisation (ILO)

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Poverty and Employment among Tribal in India


Project Lead Authority: Navin Chandra
Sponsor: Ministry of Tribal Affairs, GoI

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Economic Reforms and Small Farms: Implications for Production, Marketing and Employment


Project Lead Authority: Sandip Sarkar
Sponsor: Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)

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State Development Report of Manipur


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: Planning Commission, GoI

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Atlas of Child Labour


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: Save the Children, UK

The project aims to portray the multiple dimensions of child deprivations across different regions of the country on the basis of an extensive analysis of information from different secondary sources of data. Apart from calculations of the deprivation indices for children with regard to various issues including survival, education, work, nutrition, and crimes, among other things, the atlas also addresses gender dimensions, and special concerns of the physically and mentally challenged, poor, and disadvantaged children. The mapping of diverse dimensions of child deprivation for the country was undertaken even at the sub-state level, to the maximum extent feasible, depending on the available data sets. This project was sponsored by Save the Children, a UK-based organisation.

Nirmal Gram Puraskar Assessment in Chhattisgarh


Project Lead Authority: Ramashray Singh
Sponsor: Ministry of Rural Development, GoI

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Evaluation of the Swarnajayanti Grameen Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) in Manipur and Tripura


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Ministry of Rural Development, GoI

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Towards Dignity: Access, Aspiration, Assertion: The Status of India's Dalits


Project Lead Authority: Aseem Prakash
Sponsor: Henrich Bol Foundation

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Impact of Regional Free Trade in South Asia on Food Security


Project Lead Authority: Dev Nathan
Sponsor: ActionAid UK

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Delhi Development Report Chapters on Education, Industryand Vulnerable Groups


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: Govt of NCT of Delhi

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Nirmal Gram Puraskar Assessment in Kolhapur District of Maharashtra


Project Lead Authority: Ramashray Singh
Sponsor: Ministry of Rural Development, GoI

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Hosting of India Water Partnership


Project Lead Authority: Prem S Vashishtha
Sponsor: Global Water Partnership (GWP)

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Study on the Socio-economic Status of the Notified Minority Communities (Other than Muslims)


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: National Commission for Minorities (NCM)

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Formal and Informal Employment Growth in Manufacturing in South Asia: India and Bangladesh


Project Lead Authority: Sandip Sarkar
Sponsor: International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada

The overall objective of the research project is to study the capacity of the formal and informal sectors in the Indian and Bangladeshi manufacturing sectors to provide employment. The project was sponsored by the International Development Research Council (IDRC), Canada. For conducting the Bangladesh part of the study, IHD engaged the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Dhaka. The study is coming out in book form in September 2012 (Routledge India)

Institutional and Governance Challenges in Social protection: Designing Implementation Models for the Right to Work Programme in


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: IDS, UK

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Human Development Report for Mizoram


Project Lead Authority: Atul Sarma
Sponsor: Government of Mizoram

The Institute prepared the first Human Development Report of Mizoram, which was sponsored by the Government of Mizoram. The report is based on a large-scale intensive field survey-based data, which supplements the available secondary information relating to various dimensions of development of the state. It comprises 11 chapters, including a comprehensive chapter on the human development-led growth strategy for Mizoram. The report makes critical analyses of Mizoram’s economy on various fronts pertaining to healthcare, education, employment, income, women’s issues and the socio-economic profile of Mizoram since its inception to the present day. It highlights both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of human development across its districts in a comparative framework.
The report highlights the extremely high incidence of poverty and poor access to a productive resource base for an overwhelmingly large majority of the population in the state. It finds very low educational levels among Mizoram’s population despite the state having the second highest literacy rate in the country. The Employment and Livelihood Index for the state and its districts shows a precarious situation of employment and earnings opportunities. Unlike the general perception, the report finds significant inequalities in income and assets distribution. Similarly, the Gender Development Index and Gender Parity Index reveal the situation of women in the state. These indices offer valuable suggestions for empowering women in the social, political and economic spheres. The report also offers valuable suggestions for mobilizing financial resources for funding human development and improving governance by strengthening programme management and the engagement of Non-government Organizations (NGOs) in policy-making.

Evaluation Study of ILO-Indus Project (Sub Components)


Project Lead Authority: Upendranadh N.A
Sponsor: International Labour Organisation (ILO)

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Investment, Growth and Employment in India


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: International Labour Organisation (ILO)

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Adivasi Human Development Report of Odisha


Project Lead Authority: Harishwar Dayal
Sponsor: Skilshare International, UK

The Institute prepared the Adivasi Human Development Report (AHDR) of Odisha for Skillshare International. It was a part of Skillshare’s INGO Partnership Agreement Programme (IPAP) on tribal healthcare and livelihoods. The assignment consisted of two parts: (i) Data collection and compilation for the Adivasi Human Development Report (AHDR) of Odisha; and (ii) Data analysis and development for the same report.
The objective of the research was to identify the developmental gaps between the tribals and the non-tribals, and the nature and extent of poverty and deprivation among the tribals. It also aimed at investigating the causes of their deprivation and the issues of their land alienation, displacement, migration, food insecurity and social exclusion, while also assessing the type of intervention required for improving their conditions.
This study is based on a combination of both primary and secondary data analysis. Primary data were collected by using various tools of participatory data analysis, especially focus Group Interviews (FGDs), in-depth interviews, and case studies. The PRA exercises were conducted in eight villages and two resettlement colonies in five blocks of three districts of the state of Odisha. A wide range of secondary data sources, such as the Census 1961 to 2011, the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), NSS and other relevant sources have also been used.
Odisha is inhabited by 62 tribal communities, which constitute about 22 per cent of the total population of the state. The tribals of the state suffer from multiple forms of deprivation, and a very high incidence of poverty; and the Head Count Ratio (HCR) of poverty among them is higher than among the other communities. They also exhibit a very high incidence of malnutrition and child mortality.
The tribals are also geographically marginalized. The districts in which they are concentrated are less developed than the non-tribal belt. The HDI of the tribal-concentrated districts is usually less than the state average. Southern Odisha, which has a heavy tribal concentration, displays a much higher incidence of poverty than the northern and coastal regions.
The final report on the state, based on both primary and secondary data, has been submitted to Skillshare International.

A Poverty and Gender Analysis - Study Uttarakhand


Project Lead Authority: Dev Nathan
Sponsor: IFAD

This study was undertaken in order to understand the structure of the rural economy of Jharkhand, to define the priorities of the poor and to formulate an approach for the project towards reducing poverty and gender inequality in rural Jharkhand. The study used both secondary and primary data, including qualitative and quantitative data, collected through PRA and key informant investigations.
The study found that the incidence of poverty was higher among the Dalits, though there was not much variation in the incidence of poverty between the remote and near villages. The level of migration was high and remittances were important in household consumption. Women were over-burdened because of their having to do both agricultural and domestic work, but were poorly represented in non-farm activities.
The strategy that followed from the study was to include the social targeting of Dalit households in the project. The cultivation of high-value crops rather than food crops, constituted one way of increasing income from agriculture, but there were serious constraints of poor infrastructure and lack of finance. Tourism was one of the non-farm rural enterprises that was developing in the study areas. Women were poorly represented in tourism and it was suggested that the project could target women’s participation in tourism. Since migration was an important livelihood strategy, the promotion of higher education, which would enable the migrant to secure better-paying jobs, could offer clear benefits.

Job Creation for Women in South Asia


Project Lead Authority: Dev Nathan
Sponsor: The World Bank

This study examined a number of questions that have a bearing on women’s employment in South Asia. Some of the questions raised were as follows: Are there any constraints for women’s labour market participation and what are the regional dimensions of these constraints? What are the challenges involved in creating better jobs as well as better employment opportunities for women in South Asia? To what extent are the women affected in their work participation and returns by the initial endowments and human capital attributes?

The prevalent gender stereotypes in labour market participation prevent women from benefiting fully and at times inhibit their upward mobility as well. What are the constraints in this regard— education, skills or training? What are the ways in which these issues are being addressed across the region? A portrayal of labour market inequalities, especially those concerning gender, age, caste and religion aspects, was also undertaken as part of the study.

The sectoral dimensions were addressed for individual countries of the region as well as in a comparative frame. Specific sectors examined were the women employed in garments sector
In South Asia where the comparison of Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka was specifically analyzed to highlight that what influences women’s employment are: the industrial policy and the consequent decisions of firms whether to adopt artisanal or assembly-line production systems; the educational status of women; labour market regulations that restrict women’s working hours; socio-cultural factors (gendered identity) of older or more recent vintages that hamper or promote the entry of women into working outside the home; gendered definitions of skill, including those of an artisanal and machine-operator types; and the preference of employers for ‘docile’ women workers when it comes to large-scale units.

Other sectoral dimensions examined were the export processing zones, information technology, micro credit and its gender transformative elements and the impact of male migration on women. There are divisions of labour, e.g. between high-skilled and low-skilled workers, or lower-level professionals and higher-level managerial staff with gendered identities. But these are not the old gendered identities of non-workers and workers or of light and heavy work. While new technologies (automation and digitization) are dissolving old identities, new gendered identities are being created. This study reiterates that it is not just gender structures and relations that affect the labour market outcomes for women. The influence is also the other way around with labour market conditions of women affecting gender relations and gender identities. With a shift
from contributing home workers to own-account workers or employees, there are changes in gender relations, both within the household and in the community. Labour market positions and outcomes can be important drivers of changes in gender relations.

This project attempted to a comprehensive mapping of the relevant domestic business initiatives that directly or indirectly contribute to the elimination of child labour in India. The purpose of this output was to ensure that all the relevant initiatives were identified and that their main features were described. It attempted to particularly focus on what businesses may be doing within their own operations and supply chains, as opposed to philanthropic initiatives. The work involved both desk review and field visits. On the basis of the findings, the study aimed to make recommendations to ILO-IPEC regarding one or more initiatives for more in-depth study.
The study found that pressure from both international agencies and media exposure worked to push for elimination of child labour from the main workspaces such as factories. With growing real incomes and educational facilities supported by mid-day meals and NREGA, there was a generally reported decline in the incidence of child labour. However, the incidence of child labour still continued, mainly in home-based work and in work in the informal sector. The various projects could not tackle the supply side problem of new cohorts of children coming into the labour market. The study drew attention to the need to amend the Child Labour Act for removing the clause on exemption for children working with their families, to promote universal and compulsory education, along with an increase in adult wages. The study also argued for the need to distinguish between corporate accountability in implementing child labour and other such laws; and for corporate social responsibility (CSR), which goes beyond legal requirements.

CSR Initiatives and Child Labour in India (2011-12)


Project Lead Authority: Dev Nathan
Sponsor: International Labour Organisation (ILO)

This project attempted to a comprehensive mapping of the relevant domestic business initiatives that directly or indirectly contribute to the elimination of child labour in India. The purpose of this output was to ensure that all the relevant initiatives were identified and that their main features were described. It attempted to particularly focus on what businesses may be doing within their own operations and supply chains, as opposed to philanthropic initiatives. The work involved both desk review and field visits. On the basis of the findings, the study aimed to make recommendations to ILO-IPEC regarding one or more initiatives for more in-depth study.
The study found that pressure from both international agencies and media exposure worked to push for elimination of child labour from the main workspaces such as factories. With growing real incomes and educational facilities supported by mid-day meals and NREGA, there was a generally reported decline in the incidence of child labour. However, the incidence of child labour still continued, mainly in home-based work and in work in the informal sector. The various projects could not tackle the supply side problem of new cohorts of children coming into the labour market. The study drew attention to the need to amend the Child Labour Act for removing the clause on exemption for children working with their families, to promote universal and compulsory education, along with an increase in adult wages. The study also argued for the need to distinguish between corporate accountability in implementing child labour and other such laws; and for corporate social responsibility (CSR), which goes beyond legal requirements.

Baseline Study of Child Labour in Cotton Fields in Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan


Project Lead Authority: Dev Nathan
Sponsor: Save the Children

Recognizing the enormity of child labour issues in commercial cotton and cottonseed production and the urgency to work for their progressive elimination, Save the Children and IKEA Foundation, which is a global leader in modern home and office accessories, have joined hands to work on a 12-year intervention strategy on this issue from 2009 and 2021. This study sought to find the incidence of child labour involved in cotton cultivation, in the four districts of Punjab, three districts of Haryana, and one district of Rajasthan. It also attempted to understand the socio-economic background and working conditions and level of awareness of these child labourers. The objectives of the study were: to establish a set of baseline indicators against the identified indicators for measuring the progress and success of the project; to collect baseline information for measuring the level of qualitative improvement in the lives of the working children and their families; to prepare a background document that would help in the development of a comprehensive project proposal and in capturing critical learnings for the subsequent phases of project intervention. The purpose of the study was to provide a baseline for designing interventions that could mitigate the problem of child labour and provide long-term gains through a multi-pronged approach. The baseline indicators were used to monitor the progress and success of the project against the identified impact indicators. The survey tools, which were used to collect quantitative and qualitative information, included village profile questionnaires, listing or census questionnaires, and sample questionnaires.

The study found that overall 8 per cent of the children in Punjab, 18 per cent of those in Haryana, and 10 per cent of those in Rajasthan were working in the cotton fields in the survey districts. In Rajasthan, in the Bansarwar district, the children were mainly out-migrating for cotton work in Gujarat, while in Punjab and Haryana children from the same area were working in cotton fields. The finding of the study indicate that the poor economic backgrounds of the families compel them to send their children for work, for which the latter are forced to drop out of school or never enrol in one, as they cannot afford the educational expenditure. Further, among the working children, those who were enrolled in school, showed a high degree of absenteeism in the middle and secondary classes during the working season. The children were working in adverse conditions including long hours of work with no break, no first aid, and no toilet facilities or any other incentives in cotton fields. A very few of the children studied were found to be using any protective clothes while working in the cotton fields. The children were mainly working as subsidiary status workers on a piece rate basis with little supervision. The findings of the study thus indicate a gross negligence of children’s rights. It was concluded that simultaneous interventions are needed at both the micro and macro levels for addressing these issues. At the micro level, there is a dire need to establish effective community-based child rights and protection mechanisms through a meaningful participation of the community members including children. It is equally critical to empower civil society, government and other stakeholders to enable them to fulfill their responsibilities towards providing a protective and enabling environment to children. Further, effective advocacy efforts with the Government are required to promote the implementation of policies, laws and procedures in this area. The respective state governments have taken several steps in this direction, but these efforts are confined to the category of working children in hazardous occupations, and measures are also needed for children engaged in the other occupations.

Engendering Development through MGNREGS: A study of Women Workers in the States of UP, AP, Karnataka and Maharashtra (2011-12)


Project Lead Authority: Ashok Pankaj
Sponsor: UN Women

This study was funded by UN Women. The aim of the study was to develop the effects of MGNRE.0GA on rural women in the states of UP, Maharashtra, AP and Karnataka. Development effects have been meant in a broader sense and include various concepts and processes like gender development and women empowerment.
This study was a continuation of a previous study that focused on the empowerment effects of MGNREGA on rural women in the states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Rajasthan and .0Himachal Pradesh (HP) and examines the following questions: To what extent have paid employment opportunities under the MGNREGS resulted in improved economic and social conditions for women workers, and how far have these improvements in the social and economic conditions of women workers helped them in realizing better social and community level impacts? What is the extent and quality of women’s participation in the procedural aspects, say in the gram sabha meetings and the decision-making process, selection of the work, management of the work and their role in the control and management of the assets created, and of the organization of public works under the MGNREGA? To what extent has women’s participation increased in the decision-making process, and their role improved in the participatory development process? What are the larger social and economic impacts of the creation of community assets, and to what extent have those assets helped in realizing the larger goals of gender development?
The study found that as against the high participation of women as workers, their participation in the procedural aspects is low. This restricts the larger and community level empowerment effects of the programme and women’s participation in the community development process.

National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), Gender Relations and Women's Empowerment


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), New Delhi

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Changing Gender Relations and Women's Empowerment : Implementation of NREGA in Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar and Jharkhand


Project Lead Authority: Ashok Pankaj
Sponsor: UN Women

The National Rural Employment Guarantee (NREG) Act mandates that one-third of the workers under the scheme should be women. This study aimed to analyse the impact of NREGA on various critical aspects of women’s empowerment. The study, which is based on field surveys conducted in the states of Rajasthan, Bihar, Jharkhand and Himachal Pradesh.

Nirmal Gram Puraskar -2011-12 (Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir (2011-12)


Project Lead Authority: Ramashray Singh
Sponsor: Ministry of Rural Development (Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation)

The Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) is a comprehensive programme for ensuring sanitation facilities in rural areas, with the broader goal of eradicating the practice of open defecation. In order to add vigour to the TSC, in October 2003, the Government of India initiated an incentive scheme named the 'Nirmal Gram Puraskar’ (NGP), to be given to those ‘open defecation-free’ Nirmal Gram Panchayats, blocks and districts which have become fully sanitized. The incentive provision is for Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) as well as for individuals and organizations that constitute the driving force for the full sanitation coverage.
A ‘Nirmal Gram’ is an ‘open defecation-free" village wherein all houses, schools and anganwadis have sanitary toilets and there is awareness amongst community members on the importance of maintaining personal and community hygiene, and a clean environment.
The Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation had sponsored this study to verify the claims made by 363 Gram Panchayats from Himachal Pradesh and one Gram Panchayat from Jammu and Kashmir for laying claim to the Nirmal Gram Puraskar. The Institute conducted field surveys in the districts of Mandi, Kangra, Unna, and Lahol and Spiti in Himachal Pradesh, and the Udhampur district in Jammu and Kashmir. The detailed terms of reference, as provided by the Ministry, were filled up, and both soft and hard copies were submitted to the Ministry. The study has since been completed and its report has been uploaded on the Ministry’s website.

Understanding the Tipping Point of Urban Conflict (2012-13)


Project Lead Authority: Upendranadh N.A
Sponsor: University of Manchester

The aim of the study was to provide new insights into the dynamics of urban conflict and issues of wisdom on urban violence explaining the ‘tipping’ of urban conflict into overt violence in cities in the developing world; develop alternative violence reduction solutions for poor communities through identification of ‘tipping points’ and ‘violence chains’; and how poor communities’ could best introduce new codes of negotiation with violent social actors and local authorities, to ensure safer environments. This study focused on four cities in Asia (Patna, India and Dili, Timor Leste), Africa (Nairobi, Kenya) and Latin America (Santiago, Chile), which have been associated with one or two factors conventionally linked with urban violence, namely, poverty, youth bulge, political exclusion and gender inequity. In India, Patna, the capital of the Bihar, was selected due to its dual association with poverty and urban violence. IHD conducted extensive quantitative and qualitative research in four slums in Patna, selected on the basis of socio-economic indicators.
The main findings of this study indicated that 2005, the year of political transition in the state, was considered a major tipping point in terms of reduction of violence, where violent crimes like murders and kidnappings reduced drastically due to strategic security steps taken by the state. However the study reveals, that these steps may have exacerbated violence at the local level, mainly over public services like water and toilets, which often polarised along caste and communal lines, as well as alcohol related violence, particularly domestic violence. The main policy recommendations based on the study findings include inclusive city planning and infrastructural improvements particularly in the poor settlements.
The methodology and findings of the project have been published in the form of a working paper and a policy brief. The findings and policy recommendations were also disseminated at the Bihar Global Meet, organised in Patna in February 2012 as well as The Global Policy Meet organized by the Graduate Institute, Centre on Conflict, Development and Peace Building at Geneva in June, 2012.

Nirmal Gram Puraskar Assessment in Karnataka


Project Lead Authority: Ramashray Singh
Sponsor: Ministry of Rural Development, GoI

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District Human Development Report (DHDR)for Pakur, Jharkhand


Project Lead Authority: Harishwar Dayal
Sponsor: Government of Jharkhand

The United Nations (UNDP) has initiated a Joint Programme on Convergence (JPC) with the Planning Commission, Government of India (GoI-UN JPC) in five districts of each of the seven United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) states for ensuring the effective absorption and utilization of funds in the implementation of development programmes. This study was assigned to IHD by the GoI–UN Joint Programme on Convergence (GoI-UN-JPC). It entailed preparation of the District Human Development Reports (DHDRs) for the Pakur, Hazaribagh and Gumla districts in Jharkhand, out of which the DHDR for Pakur has been completed.
The objective of the project was to evaluate the health, educational and livelihood status of the people of Pakur district and explore the opportunities for improving their condition. The study is based on secondary data obtained from the district and its blocks, case studies collected from the grass-root level and discussions with the NGOs, CBOs (what are CBOs?) and government officials. IHD has already prepared the Human Development Index (HDI) of the various blocks of Pakur district.
After a preliminary study of the district, a consultative workshop was organized in Pakur on 18 January 2011, in which a large number of government officials, academicians, and NGO representatives of the districts participated. Major issues and problems of the districts were discussed in this workshop.
An interesting finding of the study was that although the per capita income of the district is higher than the state average and it has increased at a rate that is higher than that of the state, the levels of poverty, inequality, deprivation and vulnerability are also very high. The literacy rate among both men and women is one of the lowest in the district. Besides agriculture, bidi rolling and stone crushing are the two main sources of employment of a large section of the population in the state (should this be district?). It has also been found that both these occupations cause health hazards to those who are employed there.

Study Reports on Six Important Issues of Policy Discourse in India


Project Lead Authority: Aseem Prakash
Sponsor: Oxfam India

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Public Private Partnership in Social Sector: A Case Study of Health and Education in India


Project Lead Authority: Aseem Prakash
Sponsor: Oxfam India

This project, which has been sponsored by OXFAM, examines several unexplored dimensions of the PPP regime for the social sector in India, particularly in the areas of health and education. The research project analyses the following aspects of the public–private regime:
•Market-creating institutions (processes and polices) unfolding in the public–private regime in the social sector;
•Various available models of the public–private regime in the social sector;
•Institutions responsible for regulating the public–private partnership regime in the social sector; and
•The socio-economic impact of the PPP regime on end-users.

India Country Study on Child Poverty and Deprivations - Second Phase (2011-12)


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), New Delhi

The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and IHD, New Delhi, are jointly preparing a country report for India as part of a 40-country global study on ‘Child Poverty and Disparities’, undertaken by UNICEF. The India country study on child poverty is mainly based on the conceptual framework provided by UNICEF. The five pillars of child well-being, viz. household income, health, nutrition, education and protection, are being analysed thoroughly from policy and statistical perspectives. The study seeks to contribute to a wider discourse within which sectoral policy-making and programming take place. The interconnections between livelihoods, expansion of economic opportunities and human development outcomes for children will form the focus of this study.

Vulnerable Workers in Global Production Networks: Case Studies of Trafficked and Forced Labour in Brazil and India


Project Lead Authority: Dev Nathan
Sponsor: Chronic Poverty Research Group, UNDP, Brazil

This study explored the issues of social compliance, especially with reference to child labour in the garment value chain covering readymade garments and embellishments. The purpose of the study was to identify the vulnerabilities of different sections of workers in the value chain. The study was conducted in and around Delhi (the NCR region) and the field data for it was gathered from various communities, garment units, intermediary agencies, monitoring and certification agencies, and government officials.

Amy Mahan Research Fellowship to Impact of Public Access to Internet on People Towns and Rural Areas in India


Project Lead Authority: Balwant Mehta
Sponsor: University of Pompeu Fabra

A faculty of the IHD (Mr. B. S. Mehta) was awarded the Amy Mahan Fellowship for 2010-2011, administered by Universitat Pompeu Fabra, for the project ‘Nature and Impact of Shared Public Access to Internet in Towns and Rural Areas in Developing Countries: A Case of Cyber cafes and Telecom Centres in India’. The research study tackled specific objectives of looking into these broad questions: First, whether shared public access to internet is equitable and accessible, while displaying social and economic diversity among the users; Secondly, does shared public access to Internet bring any impact on socio-economic character of the population and their empowerment; Thirdly, what were the challenges or barriers in the shared public access to Internet; and Finally, what were its indirect benefits to the economy, society and sustainability.

Understanding the Processes, Institutions, and Mechanisms of Implementation and Impact Assessment of NREGA in Bihar and Jharkhan


Project Lead Authority: Ashok Pankaj
Sponsor: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), New Delhi

This project studies the implementation process, mechanism, difficulties and impacts of the NREGA on the beneficiary individuals and communities vis-à-vis the major objectives of the Act. The study is based on fieldwork carried out in nine districts (including six in Bihar and three in Jharkhand), spread across 30 villages (including 18 in Bihar and 12 in Jharkhand). This study examines the impact of the scheme on individual beneficiaries in terms of income–consumption effects, changes in migration and indebtedness, and the impact of community assets on the local economy, wage rate, and agrarian conditions.

Status of Women in Bihar: Exploring transformation in work and gender relations


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: International Labour Organisation (ILO)

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Aiming at Inclusive Development in Bihar:Social and Economic Change in Rural Bihar and the Emerging Policy Framework


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), New Delhi

A major research programme, entitled, ‘Aiming at Inclusive Development in Bihar: The Dynamics of Change over Thirty Years (1980-2010) and the Emerging Policy Framework’, is currently underway at IHD. The main long-term goal of the programme is to facilitate improved performance in the social and economic development of Bihar, and a wider sharing of the benefits of that development. Dr. Gerry Rodgers and Professor Alakh N. Sharma are the co-directors of this research programme. In order to achieve its goal, the programme aims to deliver better information on the pattern of development in Bihar, and to enable an analysis of the key factors that are responsible for both the positive and adverse dimensions of change. This improved knowledge base would inform policy formulation and implementation for inclusive development at the local, state and Central levels, and would be used in a programme of capacity building and policy dialogue.
Within the programme, the project ‘Social and Economic Change in Rural Bihar and the Emerging Policy Framework’, sponsored by the UNDP was completed during the last academic year. The first project, conducted on the pattern of rural development and growth, uses household and village level data from a representative sample of 36 villages in 7 districts of Bihar, and maps out the current situation in depth. This information is used to analyse agrarian relations, employment and labour markets, social inclusion and exclusion, productivity and production, investment and growth. It explores the nature and content of poverty in the state, and assesses the reach and effectiveness of different types of state intervention, as well as the functioning of local institutions. The findings of this research have been published in book form for further dissemination.
Other projects on rural–urban links, urban growth and industrialization, women’s work, and migration are currently at various stages of development and execution.

Modalities to Operationalise Mid-day Meal Schemes in Tribal Areas


Project Lead Authority: Sandip Sarkar
Sponsor: United Nations World Food Programme (UNWFP)

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Drought-Proofing Chhattisgarh


Project Lead Authority: Smita Gupta
Sponsor: Planning Commission, GoI

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Instruments of Local Financial Reform and their Impact on Service Delivery


Project Lead Authority: Shipra Maitra
Sponsor: Sanei, Pakistan

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Monitoring of All the Programmes of the Ministryof Rural Development in Jharkhand


Project Lead Authority: Ramashray Singh
Sponsor: Ministry of Rural Development, GoI

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Food Stamp Scheme


Project Lead Authority: Prem S Vashishtha
Sponsor: The World Bank

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Work and Livelihoods of the Poor in the National Capital Region: Towards Evolving a Strategy and Action Programme


Project Lead Authority: Smita Gupta
Sponsor: Sir Dorabji Tata Trust (SDTT)

The project intended to develop a strategy to enhance the livelihood options of the poor in the NCR, in collaboration with the government and other key stakeholders, by way of an evidence based research and advocacy initiative.
The core objectives of the project were: a) to provide support to a large section of the poor and vulnerable, particularly migrants, to help them enhance their income and economic security in the NCR through the livelihood promotion activities and b) to provide policy support to strengthen the livelihood linkages required to enhance the work and livelihood opportunities of the poor in the NCR, in collaboration with the government and some non-government organizations (NGOs).
In the first phase of the project, the aim was to get a theoretical understanding of the NCR region, its demographics, the pattern of migration, poverty, livelihood activities of the poor and emerging livelihood sectors in the economy. This was largely based on secondary data and literature. The second phase of the study was largely empirical and included six different field surveys across the NCR namely, a Listing Survey (20,244 households), Household Survey (3073 households), and four sub-sector studies (each 300 household surveys and FGDs) on informal workers in solid waste management, transport, construction and female home-based workers.
The study suggested a three-pronged strategy to improve the livelihoods of the poor workers living in NCR.
Firstly, access to the basic amenities like safe drinking water, sanitation and sewerage facilities must be improved in the areas where these poor workers live. The survey revealed that a large proportion of the poor workers live in unauthorized slums which do not have these provisions. The provision of these basic amenities will lead to better living and health conditions of the workers.
Secondly, emphasis should be on improving livelihoods by improving both education and skill development. Post globalization, several new activities with technical know-how have emerged in the NCR. The illiterate, low-skilled poor manual workers are not able to adjust to this changing policy paradigm and have been shifting out of the large mega cities. This is reflected by many recent macro studies and was confirmed by this study. In this context, a major policy thrust is required in the spheres of education and skill development of both workers and their children, to make their livelihoods more inclusive and sustainable.
The third point of policy focus should be on awareness generation and implementation of the various social protection programmes of the government. Workers also lack documents proving identity which prevent them from availing benefits. Awareness generation regarding these social protection programmes is also lacking.
The study published several background papers, mimeographs, strategy papers and policy briefs.

Mid-term Appraisal of the Eleventh Five Year Plan of Jharkhand and Performance of Flagship Programme In Jharkhand


Project Lead Authority: Harishwar Dayal
Sponsor: Planning Commission, GoI

The Planning Commission, Government of India, assigned IHD with the task of conducting the mid-term appraisal of the Eleventh Five Year Plan of Bihar during 2010-2011. The objectives of the project were to study the utilization of funds received and the development entailed by the Government of Bihar during the first half of the Eleventh Five Year Plan. The study comprised two parts. The first part included an overview of the status of the economy. In addition, it also highlighted the development that took place in the fields of education and healthcare. The second part of the report focused on the performance of 15 flagship programmes in Bihar being implemented by the Central Government in different sectors, namely rural development; healthcare, nutrition, drinking water and sanitation; education; urban development; agriculture and water management; and power. The study was undertaken with the help of secondary data, and data and information provided by the Government of Bihar. The findings of the study were also shared with the Government of Bihar before submission of the final reports to the Planning Commission.
The report shows that there has been a significant acceleration in the economic growth rate of the state as compared to previous years. Consequently, there has been improvement in the education and healthcare scenario as well. The implementation of various flagship programmes has also improved. However, in the case of some programmes such as NREGA, there has been little progress. As a whole, though Bihar shows improvement in implementation, it needs to further strengthen its delivery mechanism.

Capturing the Gains: Economic and Social Upgrading in Global Production Networks and Trade


Project Lead Authority: Dev Nathan
Sponsor: University of Manchester

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Women Workers in the Informal Economy in Bihar


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: SEWA Bharat

The study was commissioned to IHD by SEWA Bharat and prepared for the Special Task Force on the ‘Empowerment of Women Workers of the Informal Economy in Bihar’ to help provide a comprehensive picture of the core issues facing women in the informal economy in the state of Bihar, and suggest solutions to the problems and challenges faced by such women towards ensuring full employment and security.
IHD undertook a study on various aspects of the work and employment of women in rural Bihar. Four papers were produced, using IHD’s longitudinal database on rural Bihar as well as data from other secondary sources. The first paper on female work force participation rate in rural Bihar compared and contrasted work participation rates (WPR) from NSS data vis-à-vis that of the IHD’s longitudinal database in rural Bihar. Using the IHD database, it provided alternative estimates for WPR and argued that official data sources substantially underestimate women’s work force participation. It also made recommendations for better measurement of WPR and its enhancement. The second paper, on women in agriculture and animal husbandry used the IHD database to provide a picture of women in agriculture, particularly disaggregated by caste and class. It focused on types of work women do, wage rates, earnings of small farmers, ownership of property, livestock and other assets, the effects of male migration (i.e., migration of the adult male population) and the access to government schemes.
The third paper examined secondary sources of data to explore major occupations where women worked, and the fourth paper used exploratory time use data from two villages and analyzed how women, men and children spent their time and in particular highlighted the work burden of women in the rural areas. Together, these four papers provided a comprehensive account of rural women and their work and employment in rural Bihar.

Sanitation and Hygiene and Diarrhoea Management in Jharkhand


Project Lead Authority: Harishwar Dayal
Sponsor: Global Sanitation Fund (GSF)

The study aimed to understand various aspects needed to promote sustainable sanitation, especially in rural areas. It facilitated the achievement of the Global Sanitation Fund’s objective of attaining universal sustainable sanitation and promoting adequate measures for diarrhea management in rural India.
This research used mainly qualitative research design and data was collected from primary as well as secondary sources. Primary data was collected through in-depth interviews, FGDs, observations and Focussed Ethnographic Studies (FES). The study covered 8 districts of Jharkhand state: Dhanbad, Deoghar, Saraikela - Kharsawan, Dumka, Koderma, Pakur, Lohardagga and Simdega. A total of 12 blocks and 24 villages were covered.
It was found that toilets under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) have been constructed in only 14 villages but in 10 of these villages, none of the toilets were in use while in the remaining four, only a few of them were in use. The study also revealed reasons for their non-usage, which range from low quality of construction of the toilet pits, fault in design, shortage of water supply in the village to the habituation with the age-old practices of open defecation.

Land and Labour in Bihar: Access, Exclusion and Utilisation


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: Action-Aid India

This study was part of IHD’s Bihar research programme ‘Aiming at Inclusive Development in Bihar’. The objective of the study was to look into aspects of land related issues such as access to land, agrarian relations, tenancy, land improvement and development, and exclusion of land.
The overall objective of this study was to develop a better understanding of the changing agrarian structure over last three decades in Bihar. In this context, issues such as land ownership and operational holdings, tenancy and cropping pattern, adoption of new technology, market and income have been studied in detail. The study is based on longitudinal data over three decades (1981-2009) collected from 12 villages in the state.
Pattern of land ownership across caste, class and region has been analyzed. The same analysis has been done in case of operational holdings as well. In case of tenancy, detailed investigation has been done of leasing-in of land in terms of households and area leased-in, and nature and terms of tenancy. Technology has been studied by investigating mechanization in depth along with irrigation. The land market, buying and selling of land across various castes and classes have also been investigated. Income from farm and non-farm from households have been analyzed along with the income from wages

Food Security Atlas


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: United Nations World Food Programme (UNWFP)

This project was sponsored by the UN World Food Programme (WFP) and entailed the preparation of atlases on food security for the 8 poor states of Jharkhand, Orissa, Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan. The study was done under the guidance of a Steering committee under the Chairmanship of a Member of the Planning Commission. All the eight atlases have been prepared and most of them have been released in high level functions.

Informal Employment, Poverty and Growth in India and China


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Delhi

This project was jointly undertaken by IHD and the Institute for Rural Management, Anand (IRMA) with financial support from IDRC. The objective of the study was to provide an in-depth field-based analysis of labour markets and informal work in India and China, two countries which account for the world’s largest workforces. The study aimed to understand the relationship between informal employment, poverty and growth. Apart from analysing various characteristics of the informal sector and informal employment, the study analyses the consequences of informality on earnings, health and social protection. The study also examined the issue of women’s employment in the informal sector, and shows how disproportionate their number is in informal jobs with differentials in earnings and working conditions. It also examined the issue of migrant workers and their experiences of integration in the urban labour markets. It attempted to measure the contribution of informal employment to economic growth and poverty reduction in a comparative framework between India and China. The cities chosen for undertaking comparative studies in India were Delhi and Ranchi.
Seven papers on various aspects of labour market have been prepared by IRMA and IHD on this study. They are slated to be published in a special issue of the IHD journal, the Indian Journal of Labour Economics, in which several scholars have contributed, as well as in the form of a book from a reputed publisher. The study also attempted to fill up a number of conceptual and empirical gaps in the analysis of labour markets in the informal sector.

IHD-UNICEF PCA: Child Poverty and Social Inclusion


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), New Delhi

The collaborative project on child poverty and social inclusion published 10 papers on diverse themes. These were produced as the IHD-UNICEF working apper series Children of India: Rights and Opportunities Six papers have been printed during the year another four papers have been added to the series. These papers have also been finalised for printing. A book volume based on these papers will also be planned during 2011. A report for the project will be finalised during 2011 along with a workshop on children where all the authrors of the commissioned papers will participate.

Mid Term Appraisal of the Elecventh Five Year Plan of Bihar


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Planning Commission, GoI

Sponsored by CARE India, the study aims to devise suitable strategies for social development of Bihar and Jharkhand. The first draft has been submitted and revised report will be submitted in a month. The project is being executed at the IHD Eastern Regional Centre at Ranchi.
The Planning Commission, Government of India, assigned IHD with the task of conducting the mid-term appraisal of the Eleventh Five Year Plan of Bihar during 2010-2011. The objectives of the project were to study the utilization of funds received and the development entailed by the Government of Bihar during the first half of the Eleventh Five Year Plan. The study comprised two parts. The first part included an overview of the status of the economy. In addition, it also highlighted the development that took place in the fields of education and healthcare. The second part of the report focused on the performance of 15 flagship programmes in Bihar being implemented by the Central Government in different sectors, namely rural development; healthcare, nutrition, drinking water and sanitation; education; urban development; agriculture and water management; and power. The study was undertaken with the help of secondary data, and data and information provided by the Government of Bihar. The findings of the study were also shared with the Government of Bihar before submission of the final reports to the Planning Commission.
The report shows that there has been a significant acceleration in the economic growth rate of the state as compared to previous years. Consequently, there has been improvement in the education and healthcare scenario as well. The implementation of various flagship programmes has also improved. However, in the case of some programmes such as NREGA, there has been little progress. As a whole, though Bihar shows improvement in implementation, it needs to further strengthen its delivery mechanism.

Impact of Migration on Poverty: The Case of construction workers of India, Nepal and Bangladesh s


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: The University of Sussex

Seasonal and circular migration as an important livelihood strategy for workers in the construction industry in developing countries. This project is a three country study, conducted in South Asia (India, Nepal, and Bangladesh) by different teams of researchers. The studies used similar methodologies and the principal findings are based on surveys of migrant construction workers at source and destination in the Indian leg of the project.
This study is based on a survey of migrant construction workers employed in sites in the Delhi National Capital Region (NCR) which is one India’s largest urban agglomerations.
The first phase of the study involved a survey of 150 construction workers in the NCR at a number of construction sites. A roughly equal number workers were sampled from three types of construction projects – large commercial and office complexes; residential complexes; and small-scale residential construction. Large construction sites in India are secured by guards and access to workers is extremely difficult. The sites were selected purposively after initial mapping exercises. The research team used a variety of strategies to gain access to workers and care was taken to interview a cross-section of the workforce. However, both the scale and the nature of the survey rules out statistical representativeness.
For the second phase of the survey, were identified origin villages from which several labourers were part of the study sample. Two source villages, one each in the states of Bihar and West Bengal which supplied a number of such migrants were identified. A sample of 80 households was taken, which included both migrant and non-migrant labour households.
In the sites, in and around Delhi, most workers are seasonal or circular migrants from areas where livelihood opportunities were poor and under stress.
The workplace is segmented along migration streams, gender and functions. Contractors play a very important role in their recruitment and in the determination of their wages and working conditions. Long distance migrants recruited at origin through contractors have very little bargaining capacity.
In general, workers and their families have poor living and working conditions, lack citizenship rights, entitlements and voice.
Existing labour laws and social security provisions bypass them. Their wages are lower than the legal minimum. Most workers, and all female workers, remain stuck in low paid and low skilled jobs.
Migrant workers perceive that they are better off in terms of quantum of employment and remuneration than at origin, but perceive thri housing and living conditions to be poorer.
At origin, it is clear that migrants are able to secure employment for longer duration as well as receive higher wages than non-migrants.
Their remittances are used to boost consumption, the condition of residential housing, expenditure on children’s education, and selective investment in other assets.
Higher wage incomes among migrants, compared to similarly placed non-migrants, indicates that migrant labourers have more income to deploy in order to improve living conditions of family members through higher expenditure on education, health, and other food and non-food items. Average per capita consumption expenditure by labour migrants to the construction sector was higher than non-migrants by an estimated 75%.
Migrants perceive faster change in their condition in their economic condition compared to their non-migrant counterparts.
Policy Recommendations
1) Better regulation and better enforcement of laws related to labour migration: Labour migration is almost entirely unregulated, and in the construction sector it is mediated by a chain of intermediaries. Better regulation and better enforcement of the existing laws relating labour migration is required.

2) Simplification and reform of labour laws : The implementation of recommendations made by various tripartite bodies as well as expert commissions, including Second National Commission on Labour (2002) and the National Commission on Enterprise in the Unorganized Sector (NCEUS, 2009), would provide for a better legislative architecture and environment for the protection of labour. Further, given the size of the construction sector, and the high incidence of injury and accidents, there is a strong case for a separate legislation for this sector covering safety and injury compensation.

3) Making worker’s dues and working conditions a joint liability of contractors and outsourcers: To ensure better deal for the workers, the Contract Labour and the Interstate Migrant Workmen’s Act needs serious reconsideration. Non-registration of contractors, non-issuance of wage slips, and non-payment of full dues by contractors must attract serious penalties for both employers and contractors.

4) Implementation of amendments to Building and Construction Workers’ Welfare Act: Implementation of amendments suggested in 2013 for the Building and Construction Workers’ Welfare Act, will remove the 90 day employment requirement and make the registration of workers under the Act easier. However, given the profile of the workforce, the Acts must also provide for portability of registration and benefits.

5) Policies for better regional and urban development:Better Regional and urban development strategies can obviate distress migration as well as lower the costs of migration and increase opportunity-led migration.

6) Provision for enhancing skill base and skill acquisition:- Although the government and the National Skill Development Corporation have initiated support programmes for skill building in the construction sector, these efforts need to be significantly upscaled as the outcomes of the present programmes were not observable in the fieldwork conducted in the study.

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Project Lead Authority: Gerry Rodgers
Sponsor: International Development Research Centre (IDRC), CEBRAP

The Institute for Human Development, New Delhi and CEBRAP, São Paulo is carrying out a comparative study, with support from IDRC, Canada on labour market inequality in Brazil and India. This study is being done by a group of eminent researchers and experts of labour market from both Brazil and India.

The objectives of this research project are: to shed light on the determinants of levels and trends of labour market inequality through a comparison of Brazilian and Indian labour market structures and outcomes; to contribute to policy design and choice by assessing and comparing the impact of specific policy instruments in the two countries, and by engaging social actors in debate on the findings; to contribute to the development of methods of comparative research on labour market issues; to strengthen South-South research collaboration, by promoting interaction between the research communities in Brazil and India engaged in labour market analysis, and strengthening their capabilities. The project focuses on five major axes of wage inequality, namely gender, race, regional differences, education and formal-informal employment.

The project has produced two working papers till now and is working on several other country-level papers focusing on India and Brazil separately and another paper comparing the labour market inequalities in both countries; the project will also produce policy reviews and is planning to initiate a social dialogue with representatives from key labour market institutions.

Promoting Employment and Skills Development in the Manufacturing Sector in India Field Study (ILO Geneva)


Project Lead Authority: Dev Nathan
Sponsor: International Labour Organisation (ILO)-Geneva

The broad objective of the study is to conduct a primary survey based on qualitative and quantitative techniques to get relevant insights on employment and skill dimensions of the manufacturing sector along with binding constraints. The study will also aim to identify a set of policy recommendations for manufacturing firms and public authorities to have real opportunities to influence and increase the positive externalities that are associated with sourcing linkages in the local/ national economy.

The study identified two manufacturing sub sectors, one fast growing and another lagging behind. The sub sectors were chosen on the basis of latest employment and unemployment round of NSSO. A technical study documenting the research question and motivation, methodology, data, analysis, key findings and recommendations for policy makers were the outputs of the project.

The Employment Effects of High Growth in India 1980-2010 Service Contract No. 40108571/0


Project Lead Authority: Ajit Ghose
Sponsor: International Labour Organisation (ILO)-Geneva

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Development and Tribals in India


Project Lead Authority: Harishwar Dayal
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

The research programme aims to study the major issues confronting the tribals in India, the reasons for their deprivation and the policy options to ameliorate their condition. The objectives of the study are to document and analyze the economic condition of the tribals, the status and issues of their livelihood, poverty and other forms of deprivation rampant among them; to examine and analyze the employment opportunities available to them, the wage rates they get, the incidence and nature of migration, especially distress migration prevalent among them, their health and nutritional status, issues of education, gender disparities and nature of governance, institutions and service delivery mechanism. The study will also try to document peoples’ unrest and militant movement in the tribal areas and analyze the underlying causes behind them.

The themes covered under the study include: development, disparity and livelihood; labour markets, employment and migration; health and nutrition; education and skill development; land, forest and natural resources; governance and institutions; women in tribal society; peoples’ unrest and militant movements in tribal areas. At the end of the project, an overview report will be prepared synthesizing all the eight projects and reports and highlighting policy recommendations.

Mapping the Cultural Authority of Science Across Europe and India


Project Lead Authority: Rajesh Shukla
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

The study is a part of the first multilateral social science research collaboration that India has been considered for under the terms of the 'Indian-European RNP' agreement between the funding agencies: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR, India), Nationale de la Recherche (ANR, France), the Deutsche Forschungs Gemeinschaft (DFG, Germany), the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC, United Kingdom and the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO, The Netherlands).

This collaboration will rationalize and economize Europe’s efforts of engaging with India to produce high-quality, high-impact social science research addressing major global challenges including economic growth and development, energy and climate change, and health and well-being. This Indo-European network will construct a system of scientific and cultural indicators based on news analysis and attitude measures. Trends in science news (1990-2010; intensity, positioning, issues) are linked to trends in public attitudes to science (interest, attitude, knowledge, engagement: Eurobarometer & India Science Surveys, 1989-2010). The network will mobilise and develop joint expertise in discourse analysis, computer-assisted text analysis, large scale survey research, and sophisticated statistical techniques to track the cultural authority of science.

Panchayati Raj and Rural Development in Bihar


Project Lead Authority: Ashok Pankaj
Sponsor: Ministry of Panchayati Raj, GoI

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Evaluation Study of Backward Regions Grant Fund (BRGF)


Project Lead Authority: Ashok Pankaj
Sponsor: Planning Commission, GoI

This study of Backward Regions Grant Fund aimed at evaluating the overall performance of the programme since its commencement in the year 2006-07 and up to the year 2010-11.
The focus of the study was on examining the implementation status, mainly linked to the financial and physical progress of the programme, the difficulties and challenges of implementation, and the impacts of the programme on the local infrastructure, development of the area, and the socio-economic conditions of the people of the district.
Both primary and secondary data were used for the study. The primary data was collected through a sample survey across 31 districts in 16 states. The beneficiary sample consisted of 3,335 households from the rural areas and 1,145 households from the urban areas. The rural sample was selected from 162 Gram Panchayats (GPs) and 222 villages, while the urban sample was selected from 47 urban local bodies (ULBs) from the urban areas.
Findings of the study indicate that the overall utilization of grants remains low, which is further characterized by sharp district and state level variations. Implementation bottlenecks and difficulties continue to keep the utilization at low level. The study also enumerates the successful use of BRGF grants, although the critical infrastructural gaps continue to be there and the BRGF grant is quite inadequate for the above purpose, unless it is enhanced substantially. The final report has been submitted to the sponsors.

Global Value Chains and their Impact on Employment and Incomes at the Local Level


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: International Institute for Labour Studies (IILS)

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Development Strategy for Jharkhand


Project Lead Authority: Dev Nathan
Sponsor: Planning Commission, GoI

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Food Coupon Scheme under TPDS in Bihar


Project Lead Authority: Ashok Pankaj
Sponsor: Ford Foundation

This study was based on a panel survey in three districts of Bihar and examined the functioning of the TPDS in the State in pre-and post-coupon phases. The first two rounds of the study were sponsored by the World Bank and the third round by the Government of Bihar. The study found that there were targeting errors, distribution deficiencies, and supply chain bottlenecks. Nonetheless, there had been noticeable improvement in the functioning of the TPDS in the State and this improvement was due to a number of reasons including coupon system.

Development of State Programme Strategy for Jharkhand and Bihar


Project Lead Authority: Harishwar Dayal
Sponsor: Care India

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Evaluation study on Border Area Development Programme (BADP)


Project Lead Authority: Ashok Pankaj
Sponsor: Planning Commission, GoI

This study of Border Area Development Programme of Ministry of Home Affairs, sponsored by the Planning Commission of India, aimed at evaluating the overall performance of the programme between 2007-08 and 2010-11. The focus of the study is on examining the implementation status, mainly linked to the financial and physical progress of the programme, the difficulties and challenges of implementation, and the impacts of the programme on the local infrastructure, development of the border area, and the socio-economic conditions of the people living in border villages of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Meghalaya.
This study was conducted in three districts of Arunachal Pradesh, six districts of Assam, and two districts of Meghalaya. The key research methods used were Focused Group Interviews (FGDs), qualitative notes and physical verification of assets created.
The study found interesting impacts of the programme on the local economy, infrastructure of the border villages and livelihood conditions of the people living in the border villages.
Attachment if any: Arunachal .Pradesh ver 13-2.doc;assam report.doc;Edited Meghalaya Report final.doc

Adjustment Pattern of Drug-Addict & Non-addict Youths: A Comparative Study in Rural and Urban Areas"


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

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Convergence Child Labour Project: Building Knowledge on Child Domestic Workers with focus on Occupational Health and Safety Issu


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: International Labour Organisation (ILO)

The research project aimed to understand the extent of child domestic employment in Delhi and Ranchi, and parts of Bihar; conditions that perpetrate child domestic work and occupational health and safety issues. The purpose of the research was to make considered policy recommendations with possible solutions to the National and State Governments relating to Child Domestic Work including its impact on the health and safety of the children. The study focused on two categories of domestic workers: children in the age-group of 5-14 years – who are legally prohibited from work as domestic workers and children in the age group of 14+ -18 years – who are legally allowed to work, but can suffer from occupational health and safety risks and hazards. The study also looked at typology, impact of work, causes of children in domestic work, and the networks and channels promoting migration and employment of children.
Pockets from two areas of Delhi and Ranchi were essentially focused on, namely, poorer areas where those involved in domestic work or families of adolescent and/or child domestic workers might live and secondly, pockets in economically better off areas, (which were adjacent to the slum areas as there is a higher likelihood of part time and full time adolescents and/or children workers living closer to the work place were higher), where households that might hire them may be located. Thus areas of supply and demand were researched and surveyed. A mix of qualitative and quantitative sampling methods was used for the project.

The study unpacked the conventional typology that is used to understand domestic work such as part time, full time and live-in domestic workers and constructed more nuanced ways of categorizing workers involved in domestic work in order to inform better policies. The report explored the perception of the employers of these workers as well as other stakeholders. The study also highlighted innovative methods and entry points to access respondents, given the difficulties and challenges associated with kind of research and help inform future research.

Determinants of Food Security and Nutrition in Tribal and Backward Areas (Jharkhand)


Project Lead Authority: Sumit Majumdar
Sponsor: The World Bank

The major research questions under the study seek to investigate, analyze and explain the interaction of both supply and demand-side parameters that influences nutritional status in tribal communities. The study framework will accommodate the role of supply-side barriers involved in reaching out to the communities through alternative interventions aiming food and nutritional security as well as community and household-level attributes that determine access to these interventions, and influence desired impacts conditioned by behavioural practices. Accordingly, the research questions are identified as following: What are the linkages between delivery of public services and food and nutritional security outcomes among tribal communities? Can, and if so, in what ways can public services involving nutritional interventions through ICDS, PDS or Mid-Day Meal Schemes reduce demand-side barriers to access, utilization and benefits from program participation?;What is the relevance or significance of the ‘standard’ components of the national interventions in the situational context of tribal communities? What alternative ‘pro-active’ delivery mechanisms – home visits, regular monitoring through use of information systems etc. – can be integrated with existing delivery systems, which can potentially ensure food security and improve nutritional outcomes? How can effectiveness of public service delivery systems be assessed in the context of ensuring food and nutritional security in tribal communities?

India Gender and Development Report (P129868) - Consultancy to prepare a Research Report and papers on A Gender Perspective on "


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: The World Bank

Aims and objectives of the study were to analyze the changing pattern of employment and educational outcomes over the last decade using the Bihar programme survey data of two rounds – 1998 and 2011. The exercise pertains to estimation of inequality of opportunity, both across gender and at the household-level, with regard to educational and earning outcomes; and to explain changes in the contribution of opportunity inequality to total inequality in these outcomes over the past decade. It also aimed to assess whether and how, infrastructural changes help in reducing barriers posed by unequal opportunity arising from gender and other clusters of vulnerability.
The methodology used for the study was based on mixed methods – quantitative as well as qualitative. It entailed detailed descriptive analysis of two rounds of data collected under the Bihar Research Programme. On the basis of this, the Human Opportunity Index (HOI) was calculated to observe the nature of inequality in educational and labour market outcomes.
The report submitted to the World Bank contained the following research outputs: one, there have been remarkable improvements in enrolment levels of all children. Out of school children have declined and girls have benefitted much more than the boys overall. Inequality in enrolment has largely been reduced for all sections of the population. Given the much lower base value of enrolment among the lower and middle castes, the improvements in enrolment are higher among these sections of the population.
The report submitted to the World Bank contains the following research outputs: one, there have been remarkable improvements in enrolment levels of all children. Out of school children have declined and girls have benefitted much more than the boys overall. Inequality in enrolment has largely been reduced for all sections of the population. Given the much lower base value of enrolment among the lower and middle castes, the improvements in enrolment are higher among these sections of the population.
In case of attainment, the outcomes are not so positive. The HOI has decreased overtime indicating a fall in the availability of opportunities to complete primary education. Although, there have been increases in the attainment levels of females with many more women in the matriculation and above category compared to 1998 in 2009, the spread across social groups or class categories is not witnessed.
Employment in Bihar has largely been restricted to agriculture and related activities such as animal husbandry, both for men and women. Opportunities in the non-agricultural sector have been restricted to casual labour in construction, small trade/businesses, and some salaried employment. The probability of women’s engagement in non-agricultural work, relative to men, increased from 0.13 to 0.28 between 1998 and 2011. The greatest impact is felt amongst the women of upper caste landed households.
In both time periods, the likelihood of the youth employment in the non-agricultural sector is the highest. Able bodied young men are seen migrating for work into various occupations ranging from hard manual labour in agriculture or construction to salaried jobs as security personnel, contractors and middlemen.

Developing a conceptual framework on child sensitive social protection and mapping policies and programmes at the national level


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), New Delhi

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Impact Assessment Study on Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana - West Bengal and Jharkhand


Project Lead Authority: Sumit Majumdar
Sponsor: CARITAS India

Recognizing the sluggish performance of RSBY, PACS has been actively working to raise the overall awareness, enrolment and utilization of services some of the poorest performing and backward districts and initiated a number of activities and innovative ideas with the involvement of local people to improve effective communication with hard-to-reach sections of society. This study is an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of interventions led by PACS on specific awareness, enrolment, and utilization of RSBY scheme in target districts across two states – Jharkhand and West Bengal.

The study selected two interventions (where PACS is actively involved) and two non-intervention (no PACS intervention) districts from each states to compare the key outcomes including awareness, enrolment and utilization of RSBY scheme. Mixed methods approach was adopted with the inclusion of both quantitative and qualitative research techniques. The evaluation methodology, in the absence of appropriate baseline data in the intervention districts/communities, relies upon a treatment-control design. A household survey using semi-structured interview schedules, with the data being subject to quantitative analyses, and qualitative interviews from other stakeholders were conducted. 1300 households, including 575 (500 beneficiaries or RSBY card-holders, 75 non-beneficiaries) from Jharkhand and 725 (625 beneficiaries, 100 non-beneficiaries) from West Bengal were covered.

The survey reflected substantial gap in overall awareness about the scheme in both selected states and between intervention and non-intervention districts. It is also observed in this study that as compared with non-intervention districts, accurate knowledge about six different components of RSBY scheme in intervention districts is higher even by socioeconomic characteristics, particularly in Jharkhand. For example, awareness about maximum amount available in each year under the RSBY scheme among STs of intervention districts of Jharkhand is about 85 percent – much higher than the STs, living in non-intervention districts (49 percent). Results further shows higher reach of mass media campaigns regarding RSBY scheme among marginalized sections of population in intervention districts as compared with non-intervention districts.

The study identified some critical gaps that need to be addressed in future so that both overall and specific awareness of the scheme could reach majority of population, particularly in West Bengal. For instance, in many cases lower proportion of respondents from the intervention districts of West Bengal noticed awareness activities including mike announcements, rallies, drama and wall writing. It has been observed from this study that there is a clear pattern of increasing awareness, enrolment and most importantly utilization of RSBY scheme in intervention districts. The pattern is more apparent in Jharkhand than in case of West Bengal. Due to PACS led interventions programmes in intervention districts, general and specific awareness about the RSBY scheme and its benefits has increased in last few years. The most imperative change that PACS led initiative programme has had is the success in bringing families to the health facility and subsequently use of RSBY card for hospitalization. As people started utilizing RSBY scheme, the overall health expenditure of households started reducing. Hard-to-reach sections of the society including SCs/STs and the poor started utilizing this scheme more than before.

The PACS led intervention also works as a ‘catalyst instrument’ or helps in unlocking the community potential while involving different stokeholds including PRI members, local leaders, and community workers that ultimately leads towards more sustainable position of RSBY scheme in the community.

The final Research report has been submitted. A couple of papers are being prepared for bringing out working papers and later on as publication.

Dalit Labour and Special Economic Zones: A Micro Study on the Contested and Negotiated Development in the Noida region, Uttar Pr


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: University of Zurich

Brief Description: As part of ongoing research in India on the theme “Contested Rural Development” the project tries to understand the contestations happening around “Special Economic Zone (SEZ)” in Noida, Uttar Pradesh, with a focus on Dalit labour. The study tries to comprehend whether the Dalit labour organize themselves i.e. whether social mobilization takes place among Dalits; what kind of alternatives, organizations/movements working on Dalit labour rights purport as demands and arguments; whether these demands and propositions really represent the aspirations of the Dalit Labour. The study is expected to provide a comparative perspective in the broader context of National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) studies within India and South Asia. The study will also supplement the ongoing research project on contested rural development by analysing the development trajectory of Dalit workers within a SEZ.

Third Party Evaluation for two Education Programme"Expansion of School and Community based quality improvement programme (ESCQUI


Project Lead Authority: Harishwar Dayal
Sponsor: Navajbai Ratan Tata Trust

The NavajbaiRatan Tata Trust (NRTT) under its District Education Initiative is making intensive interventions for improving the quality of education in Khunti district of Jharkhand. One of the interventions of the District Education Initiative team at Khunti under the aegis of CInIis the School and Community based Quality Improvement Programme (SCQuIP) being implemented in 31 schools since 5th August 2012. The objective of this programme was to enhance the competencies of 1300 children studying in grades II to V in subjects like English language, Mathematics and Environmental Sciences. From July 2013, this initiative is now expanded to another 25 schools through the program “Supplementary Project to Expand the Ongoing School and Community based Quality Improvement Program (ESCQuIP) for Primary level education in Khunti District, Jharkhand” in Murhu block (in addition to the ongoing interventions in 31 schools where SCQuIP is operational).
IHD’s assignment was to conduct “Process Round Evaluation for ESCQuIP” and “Impact Round Evaluation of SCQuIP”.The objective of the study was to undertake a detailed study on the status and process of implementation of different components of ESCQuIP and SCQuIP, study the actions undertaken and the problems experienced, in order to evaluate, guide and correct the design of the program and decisions and actions undertaken for the future successful implementation plans and identify the the ‘change agents’ and document the process of change in learning level, the cognitive and non-cognitive competencies of the children (like reading and writing skills and self confidence, leadership qualities, critical and reflective thinking), school environment, communities behaviour and attitude, teacher’s competency, attitude, values and behaviour and the relation between the actions taken and these changes.
The sample of the process evaluation of ESCQuIP consisted of 12 ESCQuIP schools and 3 control schools in the Murhu block of Khunti district and the sample of the impact evaluation of SCQuIP consisted of 12 SCQuIP schools and 5 control schools. Samples were selected using purposive sampling method. The schools were selected in such a way that they represent variations in terms of socio-economic characteristics, distance from the block headquarters (access and remoteness), special location related features and pupil teacher ratio. Since these programmes involved the whole of the community so the villages where these schools were located were also studied.
The study was conducted using both the qualitative and quantitative tools like FGD and In-Depth Interview of various stakeholders and Evaluation Test of ESCQuIP and SCQuIP students and students of control schools.
Both the ESCQuIP and SCQuIP had a positive effect on the performance of the students as there has been an increase in the level of learning of the students. However, English remains a matter of concern. A concerted efforts need to be undertaken to address this learning deficiency of the children.
The competency and learning level of students have increased. The efforts have been made for improvement in the quality of both qualitative and quantitative aspects of education. The attendance of students has been raised and parents have also become aware about the importance of education for their family and society. The schools have become a vibrant center of learning with the end result that there is now a growing demand for the replication of the programme in other government schools. In this section, the report makes certain recommendations to increase the impact of the programme:
The report makes certain recommendations like providing a platform for parent’s interactions; inter school competitions and more emphasis on English learning/ education. Since the Learning Assistants are the main agents to garner the kind of change that the ESCQuIP and SCQuIPprogramme has intended to bring about so, to increase the capability and the quality of the LAs can prove to be a game changer in this process.
The report has been submitted to the sponsoring organization NRTT with suggestions for making the programme more effective.

Assessing Social Protection Provisions in States and Union Territories in India Using A Social Protection Floor approach


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: International Labour Organisation (ILO)-Geneva

India, like other countries in South Asia, is home to a very large population that needs protection against social risks. The main objectives of the study were: to prepare an inventory of social protection measures that has been adopted by the Centre and States; to examine the following aspects relating to social security schemes of different states covering five basic social security guarantees (BSSGs):(a)Institutional mechanism in terms of the role of different agencies viz. Public departments, insurance companies, employers, NGOs etc.,(b) Trends of coverage, target groups, conditions, opportunities and constraints, and (c) Coverage gaps and implementation issues;- Out of the five BSSGs, four are as detailed in Social Protection Floor Recommendation 2012 and one BSSG relates to housing for the poor. Other objectives of the study wereto examine whether there is social security extension plans presently being considered under the various development programmes of States in India; to identify the best practices of the existing schemes in different states ; and to make recommendations on the basis of insights obtained from the study towards universalisation of the schemes.
The Secondary data and information is obtained from budget documents, annual reports and websites of various departments and agencies of different states involved in implementing the social protection schemes. Such details include legal and regulatory framework of the schemes, year of initiation, objectives, target groups, coverage, number of beneficiaries and revenue expenditure.
The total expenditure by the center and states in five basic social security guarantees (i.e. health care, child care, persons of active age group, persons of old age, and housing for the poor) was 3.49 per cent of GDP in 1995-96 which increased to 5.3 per cent of GDP in the year 2010-11. However it is much lower than many Eastern and South-Eastern countries. The state expenditure (excluding center expenditure) on social protection was Rs. 2440 per person per year in the year 2011. Among the states it was highest in Sikkim followed by Goa, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, and Himachal Pradesh. Lowest expenditure per person per annum was in Bihar, followed by Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Jharkhand. Further, rich states are spending more on health and social pensions compared to poor states
The key challenge faced by the Rashtrya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) programme is the poor enrolment ratio in some states. Initiatives to increase enrolment ratio need to revolve around improving the quality of the BPL or other lists used for enrolment and promoting greater state-level ownership. The performance indicators of three important Central Government schemes (viz. MGNREGA, SGSY, and SJSRY) relating to employment generation shows that, Sikkim followed by Kerala and Andhra Pradesh are the top performing states and Arunachal Pradesh followed by Bihar and Manipur are the poor performing states. The inability to use social security pensions remains one of the biggest stumbling blocks for elderly in India. Though aware of various social security schemes they are not able to access them. Secondly there is wide variation in states and the amount of pension needs to be increased.
Housing shortage in urban areas was about one-fourth of the total households in urban areas in the year 2012. Among the States it was highest in Nagaland followed by Bihar, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan. Under Rajiv AwasYojana (RAY) 233 projects, with a cost of Rs. 86,618 millions, have been approved at all India level till 31st December 2014. Out of 164,806 approved dwelling units (DUs) under these projects, only 2390 DUs have been completed and 18,236 DUs are under progress. It indicates implementation problems as work for 144,180 DUs is yet to start.

Field verification in connection with selection of Panchayats for award under the Rajiv Gandhi Panchayat Sashaktikaran Abhiyan (


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Ministry of Panchayati Raj, GoI

With the rise in expenditure on programmes of social welfare and inclusion, and the subsequent realization of the need to strengthen Panchayats, the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Rajiv Gandhi Panchayat Sashaktikaran Abhiyan (RGPSA) was launched to strengthen Panchayati Raj. IHD was empanelled by the Ministry of Pachayati raj to survey, verify and evaluate Gram Panchyat, Block Panchayat and Zilla Panchayat for Rajiv Gandhi Panchyat Sashaktikaran Puraskar. This survey was carried out by IHD in 7 districts of Uttar Pradesh namely; Jaunpur, Basti, Kushi Nagar, MaharajGanj, Siddharth Nagar, Santkabirnagar and Gorakhpur. Under this project the team documented the best practices adopted, whether the panchayat maintains the record systematically, etc. The team made site visits in different locations where the schemes under the RGPSA were implemented and held discussions with the beneficiaries. Besides this it was checked whether gram sabha meetings were being held regularly, women reservation and participation was adequate and as per norms, the cleanliness of Panchayats, the innovative practices adopted by panchayats, implementation of the basic social security programmes, cleanliness of toilet of households and different institutions like school, anganwadi centre were studied by the team and a detailed report was prepared. Based on the survey the evaluation Report recommended 13 panchayats for the award of RGPSA.

Development Policy for Forest Dwellers in Jharkhand


Project Lead Authority: Dev Nathan
Sponsor: Planning Commission, GoI

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Developing a Repository of Published articles/Papers on Healthcare Financing


Project Lead Authority: Sumit Majumdar
Sponsor: National Health System Resource System (NHSRS)

As decided by the first meeting of the expert group of National Health Systems resource Centre a repository of studies/research conducted in India on Health care financing over the last decade has to be created. This task has been entrusted to the Population Health and Nutrition research Programme of IHD.

The project aims to develop a repository of published article/ papers/reports on health care financing in India. Popular databases are being searched for literature.

List of research studies and report of literature review on health care financing in India would be prepared at the completion of the Project.

Survey of Employers of Domestic Workers in India: Delhi and Mumbai


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: International Labour Organisation (ILO)

Domestic work is one of the oldest forms of work and is largely rooted in the context of slavery and servitude (ILO 2004 and Ray 2000). Although there have been efforts in the past few decades to situate various forms of manual work within the labour and human rights framework, domestic work still remains largely divested of basic rights.

The main objective of this employers’ survey is to better understand patterns and motivations, behind the hiring and employment practices of domestic workers, in India and to explore opportunities for change.Specific research objectives are:Build awareness among employers regarding worker’s rights and facilitate formalization of this work and eventually involve the employers as positive stakeholders; Build a code of conduct for employers in India regarding treatment of workers along the lines of ILO convention 189 as well as lessons drawn from the proposed empirical research; Inform future research on the demand side in other states.

The research process entails a thorough review of existing national and international literature and earlier studies, which though are limited in India, will form a base for the study and enhance research tools. This will be followed by primary field work entailing both qualitative and quantitative field work in Delhi and Mumbai.The study follows a mixed method approach in order to capture various dimensions of employers, their beliefs, attitudes and hiring practices. Data collection m
methods with all categories will include a combination of semi‐structured questionnaires and focus‐group interviews.

Preparation of Monograph/Policy Document on MDG and Children in Bihar


Project Lead Authority: Sumit Majumdar
Sponsor: United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), New Delhi

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Jharkhand Economic Survey


Project Lead Authority: Harishwar Dayal
Sponsor: Government of Jharkhand

The Economic Survey of Jharkhand and the Fiscal Policy Strategy Statement and Medium Term Fiscal Plan (FPSSMTFP) was prepared by IHD Eastern Regional Centre with support from researchers from IHD Delhi Office on behalf of the Department of Finance, Jharkhand. The Economic Survey is based on the data and information collected from the various departments of the Government of Jharkhand as well as other samples. The Survey reviewed the developments in the state economy over the previous 12 months, summarized the performance on major development programs, and highlighted the policy initiatives of the government and the prospects of the economy in the short to medium term.
The chapters of the survey included an overview of the Jharkhand economy and its various sectors. The role of public expenditure and outlays was discussed under public finance. Further, the scenarios on institutional finance, agriculture, industry & mining, infrastructure & communication, rural and urban development, forest, tribal welfare, human development issues like poverty, education, health, water and sanitation and gender issues were discussed. In addition to this, chapters related to tourism, assessment of government interventions, state of art & culture were included. With the fast growing economies, and major development, taking place, to track the adverse effects on the climate of Jharkhand and its ability to cope with disasters, a new issue was brought to light with this Economic Survey.
The Economic Survey has been before the Legislative Assembly the budget session of the state. These two documents are used in the preparation of the budget of the state. The Economic Survey 2013-2014 of Jharkhand was also prepared by the IHD Eastern Regional Centre.

Designing impact evaluations for the Nodal Anganwadi Centre initiatives under SWASTH, Bihar, India


Project Lead Authority: Sumit Majumdar
Sponsor: Global Development Network (GDN)

This project was awarded by International initiative of Impact Evaluation (3iE) to IHD to design an impact evaluation study of the Nodal Anganwadi Centre Initiatives under SWASTH, Bihar, India. The project had a budget of Rs.11 Lacs. The design of the proposed study was successfully completed and given to 3iE. The actual study of the Impact Evaluation of the Nodal Anganwadi Centre Initiatives has now been awarded to IHD, the budget for which is Rs. 1.8 crores approximately.

Evaluation of Eradication of Bonded Labour and Socio Economic Impact in Uttar Pradesh


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: FXB Centre of Harvard University Harvard School of Public Health, Boston

The project will examine whether bonded labour practices have been eradicated in the selected intervention villages in three panchayats of Bhadohi where a local NGO, ManavSansadhanEvamMahilaVikashSansthan (“MSEMVS”), has been working for several years. The area is known for its carpet weaving and brick kiln work, apart from agriculture. Given the poor capabilities and economic inequalities, adult members of households in these villages are prone to be involved in exploitative work arrangements. The organization is working towards generating awareness among the local populations to ensure their freedom and dignity. In some instances, the MSEMVS has helped release persons from bondage or those who were trafficked. While in other villages, they have helped in training women to get involved in some income generating activity. The men in some cases are provided the means to initiate an alternative occupation.

A well designed and structured survey – both quantitative and qualitative – is being undertaken in the intervention areas as well as in one village as control group. Of the sample covered in the baseline, there are three cohorts – one, where the MSEMVS has intervened and reported complete eradication; second, where there has been intervention but no eradication and a third, where there has been no intervention of the organization. A total of approximately 850 households are to be covered for the quantitative survey. For the qualitative survey, apart from interviews with key informants, and focus group discussions, there have also been some qualitative interviews with selected respondents.

The data and qualitative translated reports will be provided to our collaborators at FXB Centre of Public Health, Harvard University

UN Women Supported Project "Programme on Women's Political, Social and Economic Empowerment"


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: PRADAN - Professional Assistance for Development Action

The end line survey aims to capture the changes and transformations if any during the four year period of Pradan and Jagori’s intervention to bring about gender equality and improve access to provisions on women’s empowerment. The recognition that patriarchal notions can be reinforced or carried forward even while working with women formed the base for initiating this intervention which involved intensive and rigorous training by gender resource persons from Jagori. The three pillars of the Gender Equality Centered SHG Program that constituted the fourth generation changes were: 1. Understanding patriarchy and initiating change; 2. Political participation - governance structures, institutions & processes; and 3. Women’s enhanced economic agency.

There are nine districts in the four states mentioned above, in which this work has been initiated under the gender equity programme towards facilitating women to access, actualize and sustain provisions on women’s empowerment. These were undertaken through organization of workshops, trainings, camps, exposure trips, meetings, institutional mapping, family based well being planning, campaigns, Mahaadivesans, theatre, and Federation building process (Cluster, Village level committees (VLC)). The endline survey aims to examine the shifts, transitions or changes in different domains of women’s empowerment – social, economic and political.

Five districts (almost one half) of the areas under this project have been selected in four states – District Hazaribagh in Jharkhand, Betul (Kesla) and Dindori in Madhya Pradesh, Mayurbhanj in Odisha, and Purulia in West Bengal. The baseline covered a sample of 1257 across all locations of the project. The endline will cover approximately 1500 households. Both quantitative and qualitative survey tools are administered.

Deliverables
Apart from the project monitoring format against which the different indicators of outputs will be shared, a detailed report will also be prepared.

Exploring the Witch Question in Changing Socio-Economic and Political Context in Selected States in India


Project Lead Authority: Dev Nathan
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

The context of the research is that the phenomenon of witch hunting is organic and has been changing over time under different socio-economic and political circumstances which are characterized by rapid change, in particular form subsistence economies to one of accumulation.

The research study seeks to explore how this social phenomenon of witch hunts, witch accusations and witch craft might assume different social, political and symbolic meanings, roles and implications under differing socio-economic and political circumstances and contradictions, particularly those brought about by the market economy.

The research process entails secondary research, primary field work and data analysis. The study will be undertaken in 2 states, viz, Jharkhand and Odhisha where the incidence of witch hunts is reported to be the highest. The study is qualitative involving the use of participatory methodological tools like focus group discussions, but relies heavily on individual interviews and case studies. The findings from the study are expected to inform policy to address the issue of witch branding and witch hunts.

Convergence Child Labour Project: Study on Migration and Trafficking of Children that may


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: International Labour Organisation (ILO)

The study was an in depth enquiry into the phenomenon of child migration and trafficking of children, most frequently ending in child labour, often in its most hazardous and exploitative forms, in India. In India, ILO’s Technical Cooperation in addressing this issue is an integral part of its Decent Work Country Program, which is aligned to the Eleventh Development Plan of the Government (2007-12) and the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF). The Convergence Child Labour Project (CCLP) of ILO in conjunction with the Ministry of Labour and Employment (MOLE) focused on two districts each from five states, which were identified as sending and receiving areas for child migrants, who end up in exploitative work situations. These districts included the following: a) Bihar: Katihar and Sitamarhi, b) Gujarat: Surat and Vadodra, c) Madhya Pradesh: Ujjain and Jabalpur, d) Odisha: Kalahandi and Cuttack, e) Jharkhand: Sahibganj and Ranchi.

Inclusive Urban Development in Bihar: An Explantory Study


Project Lead Authority: Dr. Alok Kumar
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

This project aimed to explore the overall pattern of urbanization, sources of urban output and rural–urban linkages in Bihar using both primary and secondary data. It contributed to a better understanding of the reasons for slow urbanization in Bihar and the implications for the overall pace and pattern of development and poverty reduction.

For the purpose of understanding sources of urban output and growth as well as rural-urban linkages, enterprise survey and household survey were carried out in two towns of different sizes in Bihar: Madhubani and Biharsharif. The enterprise survey was conducted in 2014 in the factories, shops and establishments in the sample towns. Using lists of all the factories and shops/establishments from the concerned departments of the state government, smaller numbers of factories and shops/establishments were selected on the basis of stratified random sampling. The stratification of the factories and shops/establishments were done on the basis of broad industrial categories. Among each group, proportionate sample were drawn.

The findings from the enterprise survey indicated that the main source of urban output is trade. Manufacturing and services came a distant second and third. The average size of the enterprises is small, There is a large share of Own Account Enterprises and very low share of Directory Enterprises. Biharsharif has more DEs than Madhubani. There is fairly strong rural-urban linkage with manufacturing units having the highest share of hired workers from rural areas. Many workers in vulnerable occupations such as rickshaw-pullers, vendors also commute to town daily from nearby rural areas. Trading units have been the driver for expansion, and manufacturing units have been facing contraction in output. Electricity was the key bottleneck area indicated by all types of enterprises. For DEs and NDEs, this was followed by poor public infrastructure, while for OAEs, the second most important problem was reported as lack of sufficient funds. Limited market was also an issue. Infrastructure framework as well as enabling governance must be provided for enterprises to grow. The areas can benefit from dedicated plans for developing agro-processing and manufacturing activities as well as developing the makhana-processing activities.

Convergence Child Labour Project a Research Study to understand the Impact of MGNREGS on incidence of Child labour


Project Lead Authority: Ashok Pankaj
Sponsor: International Labour Organisation (ILO)

The main objective of the study was to understand the impact of MGNREGS on the incidence of child labour and to study the socio-economic conditions households sending their children for work and the reasons thereof. It also examines the effects of additional income generated through the MGNREGS on the health of children and education.
The study was primarily based on a survey conducted at MGNREGS worksites in UP & Tamil Nadu -Lalitpur and Mirzapur districts from Uttar Pradesh and Nagapattinam and Pudukkottai districts from Tamil Nadu were the study areas. About 80 worksites were surveyed and about 400 workers were interviewed for the study. A detailed sampling methodology and plan, questionnaires and other tools were prepared for the study. A national workshop was organized on 11 June at IIC, New Delhi to share the preliminary findings of the survey and to get comments and suggestions from the academia, policymakers and practioners, media, national and international development organizations, social activists and child rights activists and learned participants.

2nd Assam State Human Development Report


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Omeo Kumar Das Institute for Social Change & Development (OKDISCD) Assam

Through a highly competitive and transparent process, the responsibility of preparing the second Assam Sate Human Development Report has been entrusted on OKD Institute of Social Change and Development (OKDISCD), Guwahati – an autonomous research institute of Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Government of Assam and the Institute for Human Development (IHD), New Delhi by the Planning and Development Department, Government of Assam.

The present exercise is envisaged to meet six broad objectives. First, while the exercise will typically follow the 2010 UNDP framework, it would try to take into account the various specificities of the state having significant implications upon the overall human development outcomes. Second, in order to incorporate these unique diversities and specificities of the state, the exercise will try to accommodate the use of primary data – both quantitative and qualitative to the extent possible. Third, it is envisaged that the SHDR will follow a participatory approach taking on board widest possible inputs from different stakeholders. Fourth, the SHDR, besides providing standard indices in the line of UNDP framework would also incorporate a happiness/wellbeing index for the state. Fifth, it is expected that the SHDR would provide pointers for the progress in welfare interventions during the last ten years or so in the state clearly stressing on future policy imperatives. Last but not the least, the exercise will further try to strengthen the state statistical system in order to facilitate similar exercises on a regular basis in the future.

The methodology involves a massive household survey covering all districts of the state – both in rural and urban areas. Altogether 40194 households will be covered by the survey in 97 blocks, 1975 villages and 95 urban areas – which is going to be the largest household survey conducted ever in the state so far – about ten times larger than the size of sample of typical NSSO rounds and about eight times more than that of the National Family Health Survey in the state The overall approach and process of preparation of the present SHDR has been made participatory to the extent possible. Besides, large scale primary survey on peoples’ perceptions and a series of Focus Group Discussions on relevant local issues, a large number of consultations at the level of state, district and even sub-divisions involving cross section of academia, bureaucracy, civil society and elected representatives have also been built into the process of the preparation of the present SHDR. It may be noted that all together 51 district and sub-division level workshops were conducted for the purpose to sensitize people and take on board their views regarding myriad issues implicating overall as well as specific human development outcomes. http://www.planassam.info/admin/files/assam_state_human_development_repo...
Attachment if any: Assam Human Development Report 2014.pdf

Research As an Approach to Strengthen the recommendations for Southern-led Southern-Focused Post -2015 Development Agenda


Project Lead Authority: Sumit Majumdar
Sponsor: IPE Global Private Limited

The new framework stipulated to replace the existing set of eight Millennium Development Goals in 2015 is presently part of a major international development discourse. Since early 2012, the United Nations has been spearheading this process by holding a diverse set of activities and consultations, converging finally to inform the UN Secretary General’s Report to the 68th UN General Assembly in September 2013. A Special Event on the MDGs (post-2015 agenda) was held as part of the UN Assembly in 2013.

With the main objective to outline how research as an approach would strengthen the recommendations for a Southern-led, Southern-focused post-2015 development agenda globally, momentum needs to be built around shaping the agenda by engaging a distinguished set of stakeholders, and in this regard, the academic community plays a critical role as a key voice. Wada Na Todo Abhiyan (WNTA), a coalition of over 4000 civil society organizations in India, and the Institute for Human Development (IHD), New Delhi, a development policy think-tank, have jointly initiated a dialogue on the post-MDG 2015 development perspective involving leading academic scholars and experts from the global South. Examining the overall macroeconomic development frame as well as focusing in-depth on key questions within thematic areas, through commissioning research pieces, in order to arrive at concrete alternative recommendations for an an alternative development agenda is another objective of this initiative.

In the first phase (now completed) ‘Think Pieces’ on themes including -Addressing Poverty & Inequality; Facilitating quality jobs, sustainable livelihoods & equitable growth path; Gender equality - rights and perspectives; Education; Food Security and Nutrition; Health and Global partnerships for development were invited from scholars and experts to share perspectives and insights to influence and shape the evolving dialogue on the new development agenda post-2015. The Draft ‘Think-Pieces’ were compiled and widely circulated among national and international stakeholders, including policy-makers and agencies and also in the UN General Assembly, the proceedings of which were witnessed by the Project Director in New York. The Think Pieces have been finally compiled into a volume and presented to the UN Secretary General’s office, UN General Assembly.

In continuation with this agenda, in the second phase, a high-level international symposium was organized during 28-29 April 2014 to facilitate intensive deliberations on the key thematic issues pertaining to development that are relevant for the MDGs. The issues spanned a wide range of themes including poverty and basic needs, social protection, food security and nutrition, healthcare, education, and inclusive social policies. About 200 leading experts, scholars, social activists and development practitioners, including several from the countries of the Global South, participated in this high-profile event. The deliberations of the symposium plenaries as well as the the dedicated thematic working groups generated a crucial body of opinion and evidence on the development pathways for the developing world in the post-MDG era. Some important emerging issues relevant for the post-MDG era were taken up for deliberations during the symposium in the form of theme papers and perspective papers during the plenary sessions, and invited commentaries and open discussions during the parallel working group meetings. A volume of papers presented during the Symposium is being brought out.

Impact of Economic Slowdown on Labour in Manufacturing


Project Lead Authority: Dev Nathan
Sponsor: German Development Corporation (GIZ)

he main objective of this study was to outline some better labour practices in Indian manufacturing through a study of various plants located across the country. Ten manufacturing plants were studied in the East; five in the South; and five in the North; all the units studied were in the manufacturing sector, except one which was in projects and engineering (PE). The study was based on brief but in-depth discussions with heads of either Human Resource (HR) or Industrial Relations (IR) departments of the firms concerned.
The report briefly discusses the impact of the current slowing of the growth rate and looks at the identified better practices; it then analyses the factors driving the adoption of these better practices, and then analyses certain legal provisions related to these practices. The report concludes that the changes in labour practices were not a result of the current slowdown in the Indian economy because such changes were brought about by firms before the slowdown. The slowdown, however, accentuated the need for business strategies of competing on quality or with patented products. The changes towards better labour practices are brought about by a combination of market forces, firm strategies and different forms of workers’ associational and market power. The findings of this study point to some areas that require investigation and analysis.
Attachment if any: GIZ- Good Practices Report.docx

he main objective of this study was to outline some better labour practices in Indian manufacturing through a study of various p


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: International Labour Organisation (ILO)

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Equity Impacts of a Targeted Health Insurance Scheme: New Evidence from India's Rashtriya


Project Lead Authority: Sumit Majumdar
Sponsor: Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)

Project work is in Progress

Four studies on various Aspects of Women Workers in the informal Sector in Bihar


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: SEWA Bharat

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Inequality and Employment in South Asia: Options for More Inclusive Economic Development


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Christian Aid

The project was a regional study on inequality and economic inclusion for South Asia with a specific focus on employment issues. It aimed to contribute to more inclusive economic development in South Asia through an understanding of the nature, trends, causes and extent of inequality and exclusion from economic opportunity. The study made a compelling case for scaling up of measures that support more inclusive development with a focus on promoting access to employment and other market opportunities including control over productive resources (land, water, forests, mines and coasts).

The methodology of this project combined two different approaches. The first is the empirical analysis of survey data, which investigates the patterns and determinants of inequality and their changes over time. Second one is a process of discussions with social activists to examine the issue of discrimination (by religion, caste and gender), labour market segmentation and impact of different government measures like minimum wages, income transfer programmes and public works programmes on poorer section of society. This study undertook direct comparison between Bangladesh and India, apart from comparing inequality and poverty across four major South Asian countries of Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

The most important drivers of inequality in major South Asian countries are increasing skill premium, unequal access to land and assets, inter-regional inequalities, inequality across various socio-economic groups and high gender inequality leading to differential access to political power and voice. These phenomena are compounded by low level and regressive nature of taxation and low level of public social spending in the areas of education, health and social protection.

The study made the following policy recommendations:Taxation: The combination of low tax to GDP ratio, large budget deficits and high inflation rate needs to be broken. This combination limits government capacity to build physical infrastructure in difficult or distant regions, do not allow universal access to education, basic health and social security and at the same time expose large section of population to price rise of basic goods. Steps required are increase Tax-GDP ratio by relying more on collection of direct taxes (individual and corporate); greater collection of property and inheritance/wealth taxes; Reduce tax exemptions and incentives where the benefits of these are outweighed by the revenues lost to governments.
Budget: Increase public spending on primary and particularly middle school education where high dropout ratio exists and increase access to education for girl child; Build basic health infrastructure and services for universal access to primary health care; Provide universal access to social security and welfare; reduction of subsidies to services and commodities availed by non-poor and direct them towards measures that increase uptake of entitlements among marginalised sections.
Creating jobs should by primary orientation of growth by emphasising on emerging and growing labour intensive sectors as this region is experiencing larger increase of youths due to demographic bulge; provision of better facilities to Micro, Small and Medium enterprises (MSME) sector; provide appropriate skill training to youths particularly from backward regions and belonging to marginalised sections so that they can be productively employed ;fixation and strict enforcement of national minimum wage.
Take appropriate land reform measures so that surplus land goes to the tillers; provide timely and appropriate amount of modern inputs, appropriate technology, and financial loans to the small and marginal cultivators; land particularly for the marginalised section must not be procured without creating proper and alternative livelihood options and settlement.
Discrimination against Socially Excluded Groups: Special measures must be taken to make formal sector jobs more accessible to the socially excluded group through affirmation action/reservation, sensitisation, providing special incentives to the employers etc; provision of education, health and other basic services should be specially channelized to areas where there is larger concentration of socially excluded groups.

Violence against women in Rural Bihar: A case of four villages (2012-13)


Project Lead Authority: Shivani Satija
Sponsor: SEWA Bharat

The aim of this study was to understand the nature of GBV (full form) and its various dimensions along with other forms of violence affecting different socio-economic groups of women (Scheduled Caste (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST) and Other Backward Classes (OBC)) in rural Bihar.
The research was carried out in four villages where IHD has also conducted detailed longitudinal research. Two villages were from the northern districts (Belabadan in Purnia and Khangaon in Madhubani) and two from the southern districts (Rupaspur Salempur in Gaya, Chandakura in Nalanda,) of the state. Given that these villages are distributed across the state, they have different socio-economic and occupational characteristics and demographic composition. Secondary information on the villages had been compiled which was used to prepare the base for the field research. The study was entirely qualitative in nature, and involved the use of participatory methodological tools such as Focus Group Discussions with relevant groups (both men and women of different age groups and caste groups) and key informant interviews with relevant stakeholders (local leaders, community based organisations, non-government organisations primary health care centre and police station wherever possible).

The main finding of the study was that apart from incidents of overt physical violence, there exist layers of invisible (Gender Based Violence) GBV, whether it is domestic violence, gender based discrimination and caste based discrimination among women across caste and age groups that have become normalised and accepted over time through every day experience and cultural and social practices in all four villages surveyed.
Attachment if any:

Preparation and Updation of Sampling Frame of Units Establishments engaged in Trade in health Services in india (Project under t


Project Lead Authority: Sumit Majumdar
Sponsor: Ministry of Commerce & Industry

A pilot survey was conducted by Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, Calcutta (CSSSC) as per the requirement of Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence & Statistics (DGCI&S) in the cities of Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Trivandrum, Mumbai, Pune and Delhi. In the absence of a sampling frame of the units providing health services, survey units in the eight cities had to be selected purposively. Non-availability of a sampling frame compelled DGCI&S to restrict the scope of the pilot to assessment of availability of the desired information with the units and finalization of the survey instruments for collection of statistics on international trade in health services. The objective of the study is to enable DGCI&S to adopt an appropriate sampling strategy to select the units to be surveyed so that valid estimates of various categories of services by country/mode etc could be generated.

The project entails collecting, compiling and publishing/disseminating trade statistics and various types of commercial information required by the Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence & Statistics (DGCI&S) for preparation /updation of sample frame of units/establishments engaged in trade in health services. The survey is being taken up two phases – first, devoted to preparation/updation of frame and secondly on the survey of the selected units. This exercise is expected to throw light on product–wise and country-wise information of 10 broad categories of health services like medical and health tourism, telemedicine, medical transcription, medical coding, medical billing, health claims processing, clinical trials, contact research, distant health education and temporary overseas movement of personnel.

valuation Study on Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)-12 Districts of Uttar Pradesh


Project Lead Authority: Harishwar Dayal
Sponsor: Planning Commission, GoI

This study was sponsored by the Erstwhile Planning Commission to evaluate the NREGA in Uttar Pradesh as a part of All India evaluation Programme of the Government of India.

The main objective of the study was to evaluate three issues of the scheme; one, the implementation process of the scheme; two, its performance and lastly; its impact (direct impact in terms of its ability to provide gainful employment to the workers and indirect impact in terms of the benefit of the durable assets created in the villages under this scheme).

The study was spread across 12 selected districts of Uttar Pradesh. From each district two blocks were chosen on the basis of the presence of the ‘rarest category of asset’. Further, from each block, three GPs were randomly selected, giving preference to the GPs which had the ‘rarest category of asset present. Thus, the sample area for this study consisted of 72 GPs selected from 24 blocks of 12 districts of Uttar Pradesh. In each of the selected GPs, two works were selected (one ongoing and one completed) from each of the ten categories of the MGNREGA works– that had the highest actual expenditure among all the works in that particular category. Thus, a maximum of 20 works (10 ongoing and 10 completed) could be sampled from any GP. A total of 554 works were selected for this study from the sampled 72 GPs. Data were collected through primary survey which included 7 types of structure schedules each for different stakeholders of the programs. In addition to this Focussed Group Discussion were also conducted.
The survey reveals a very low level of awareness about the provisions of the programs and reddressal mechanism among the sampled households. This is one of the prime reason for slowing down of NREGA activities in recent times. Although, the response of the implementation agencies and the villagers differ about the process of implementations, in most of the villages it was found to be abiding by the rulebook. However, a lot of complaints were received about delayed and inappropriate payment of wages. The survey results show that the rural road was the most preferred asset to be built across the sampled district. The villagers acknowledged the benefit received from the rural assets, but posed a serious question on the durability of the assets. The survey results also showed positive impact of the program on creating gainful employment, livelihood of the rural people, rising wage rate, reduction of distressed migration and encouraged women empowerment.

A draft version was shared with Indian Statistical Institute (the nodal agency for the evaluation study), and after incorporating valuable suggestions from their side, the Final version of the report has been sent to ISI for preparation of a compiled reports from all the clusters.
Attachment if any: Compliance report.doc;Cover Page Evaluation Study MGNREGA UP.doc;UP MGNREGA Final Report 14.9.2015.doc

Federalism and Education: A Comparative Study of Australia and India


Project Lead Authority: Atul Sarma
Sponsor: Victoria University Melbourne

na

Ratan Tata Trust - Monitoring and Impact Assessment for the Project - SCQUIP-Jharkhand


Project Lead Authority: Harishwar Dayal
Sponsor: Navajbai Ratan Tata Trust

The project aims to study the status and process of implementation of different components of ‘School and Community based Quality Improvement Programme’ (SCQuIP). The Impact assessment exercise will also study the actions undertaken and the problems experienced, in order to evaluate, guide and correct the design of the programme and decisions/actions taken for its successful implementation. The research process would entail research investigation, which would be carried out thrice a year. This will help in studying the effectiveness of the actions, process of change, the factors causing the change, the remedial measures and how effective have they been in resolving them. The Impact assessment report with a comprehensive chapter on findings of the study will be presented on the completion of the project. The project is being executed by IHD’s Eastern Regional Centre.

Resources, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Technology and Work in Production and Distribution System: Rice in Inia


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: The University of Sussex

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India: State of Development Evaluation Report 2010


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Delhi

na

Desk Review on equity in coverage for select chronic diseases in India


Project Lead Authority: Sumit Majumdar
Sponsor: World Health Organisation (WHO)

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International Symposium on Technology, Jobs and a Lower Carbon Future Methods, Substance and ideas for the Informal Economy: Cas


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: University of Oxford

na

Verification of Gram Panchayats for Nirmal Gram Puraskar (Punjab and Haryana)


Project Lead Authority: Ramashray Singh
Sponsor: Ministry of Drinking Water and Supply, GoI

The Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) is a comprehensive programme for ensuring sanitation facilities in rural areas, with the broader goal of eradicating the practice of open defecation. In order to add vigour to the TSC, in October 2003, the Government of India initiated an incentive scheme named the 'Nirmal Gram Puraskar’ (NGP), to be given to those ‘open defecation-free’ Nirmal Gram Panchayats, blocks and districts which have become fully sanitized. The incentive provision is for Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) as well as for individuals and organizations that constitute the driving force for the full sanitation coverage.
A ‘Nirmal Gram’ is an ‘open defecation-free" village wherein all houses, schools and anganwadis have sanitary toilets and there is awareness amongst community members on the importance of maintaining personal and community hygiene, and a clean environment.
The Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (NBA Division) had sponsored this study to verify the claims made by two states i.e. Punjab and Haryana. Nine districts (Amritsar, Bathinda, Fatehgarh Sahib, Ferojpur, Jalandhar, Mansa, Nawansahar, Rupnagar and Sangrur) from Punjab (65 Gram Panchayats) and 4 districts (Ambala, Kurukshetra, Panchkula and Yamunanagar) from Haryana (114 Gram Panchyats) were undertaken by the study team. For Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP) verification of GPs that included School, Anganwadis, Individual households, community sanitary complex (CSC) and gram Panchayat itself. The detailed terms of reference, as provided by the Ministry, were filled up, and both soft and hard copies were submitted to the Ministry. The study has since been completed and its report has been uploaded on the Ministry’s website.

Navajbai Ratan Tata Trust Small Grant Programme: A Study on the Impact of Migration on Education in Khunti District Jharkhand


Project Lead Authority: Harishwar Dayal
Sponsor: Navajbai Ratan Tata Trust

The project aimed to study the status and process of implementation of different components of ‘School and Community based Quality Improvement Programme’ (SCQuIP). The Impact assessment exercise also studied the actions undertaken and the problems experienced, in order to evaluate, guide and correct the design of the programme and decisions/actions taken for its successful implementation. The research process entailed research investigation, which helped in studying the effectiveness of the actions, process of change, the factors causing the change, the remedial measures and how effective have they been in resolving them. The Impact assessment report with a comprehensive chapter on findings of the study has been prepared o. The project was executed by IHD’s Eastern Regional Centre.The project aimed to study the status and process of implementation of different components of ‘School and Community based Quality Improvement Programme’ (SCQuIP). The Impact assessment exercise also studied the actions undertaken and the problems experienced, in order to evaluate, guide and correct the design of the programme and decisions/actions taken for its successful implementation. The research process entailed research investigation, which helped in studying the effectiveness of the actions, process of change, the factors causing the change, the remedial measures and how effective have they been in resolving them. The Impact assessment report with a comprehensive chapter on findings of the study has been prepared o. The project was executed by IHD’s Eastern Regional Centre.

Formative Research on Sanitation Hygiene and Diarhea Management


Project Lead Authority: Harishwar Dayal
Sponsor: Global Sanitation Fund (GSF)

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Policy Options and Investment Priorities for Accelerated Agricultural Productivity and Development in India


Project Lead Authority: Sumit Majumdar
Sponsor: Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (IGIDR), Mumbai

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Economic Reforms, Employment, Poverty and Safety Nets


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: Friedrick Ebert Stiftung (FES)

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External Evaluation of Jan Shikshan Sansthan Jan Shikshan Sansthan Sara (Chhapra), Bihar)


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Directorate of Adult Education, GoI, New Delhi

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Coordinating South Asia Policy Research on Intersectional Inequalities


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), New Delhi

na

Workshop on Cash Transfers for Vulnerable Children on 8-9 December 2015


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), New Delhi

na

Institutions of Land and Poverty Alleviation in Andhra Pradesh


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: SERP, Andhra Pradesh

na

Livelihood Diversification, Poverty and Policy Reform


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Overseas Development Research Institute, UK

na

Evaluation of State Resource Centre, Guwahati, Assam


Project Lead Authority: Vandana Parashar
Sponsor: Ministry of Human Resource Development, GoI

na

Rehabilitation of Workers in Closed Textile Mills in Indore (Madhya Pradesh)


Project Lead Authority: Jaya Mehta
Sponsor: Ministry of Labour, GoI

na

Deprivation of Education


Project Lead Authority: Anuradha De
Sponsor: Department of International Development (DFID), India

na

India's Employment Challenges: Answering Old Questions with New Data


Project Lead Authority: Sandip Sarkar
Sponsor: The World Bank

na

Hub for Migrant Workers


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: Gramin Vikas Trust

na

Study on Scheduled Tribes in India: A Calculation of Human Development Indicators and Indices


Project Lead Authority: Dev Nathan
Sponsor: IFAD

na

Impact Assessment of Growth Oriented Micro Enterprise Development Programme in India (Baseline Survey)


Project Lead Authority: RP Mamgain
Sponsor: Agricultue Cooperative Development International Volunteers in Overseas Cooperative Assistance of USAID

na

Thematic Papers on Legal Employment of the Poor


Project Lead Authority: Aseem Prakash
Sponsor: Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor, New York

na

Rural Employment Guarantee Programme in Bihar and Jharkhand


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), New Delhi

na

Evaluation Study on Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)-12 Districts of Uttar Pradesh


Project Lead Authority: Harishwar Dayal
Sponsor: Planning Commission, GoI

This study was sponsored by the Erstwhile Planning Commission to evaluate the NREGA in Uttar Pradesh as a part of All India evaluation Programme of the Government of India.

The main objective of the study was to evaluate three issues of the scheme; one, the implementation process of the scheme; two, its performance and lastly; its impact (direct impact in terms of its ability to provide gainful employment to the workers and indirect impact in terms of the benefit of the durable assets created in the villages under this scheme).

The study was spread across 12 selected districts of Uttar Pradesh. From each district two blocks were chosen on the basis of the presence of the ‘rarest category of asset’. Further, from each block, three GPs were randomly selected, giving preference to the GPs which had the ‘rarest category of asset present. Thus, the sample area for this study consisted of 72 GPs selected from 24 blocks of 12 districts of Uttar Pradesh. In each of the selected GPs, two works were selected (one ongoing and one completed) from each of the ten categories of the MGNREGA works– that had the highest actual expenditure among all the works in that particular category. Thus, a maximum of 20 works (10 ongoing and 10 completed) could be sampled from any GP. A total of 554 works were selected for this study from the sampled 72 GPs. Data were collected through primary survey which included 7 types of structure schedules each for different stakeholders of the programs. In addition to this Focussed Group Discussion were also conducted.

The survey reveals a very low level of awareness about the provisions of the programs and reddressal mechanism among the sampled households. This is one of the prime reason for slowing down of NREGA activities in recent times. Although, the response of the implementation agencies and the villagers differ about the process of implementations, in most of the villages it was found to be abiding by the rulebook. However, a lot of complaints were received about delayed and inappropriate payment of wages. The survey results show that the rural road was the most preferred asset to be built across the sampled district. The villagers acknowledged the benefit received from the rural assets, but posed a serious question on the durability of the assets. The survey results also showed positive impact of the program on creating gainful employment, livelihood of the rural people, rising wage rate, reduction of distressed migration and encouraged women empowerment.

A draft version was shared with Indian Statistical Institute (the nodal agency for the evaluation study), and after incorporating valuable suggestions from their side, the Final

test


Contributory Pension Provision in India Coverage, Performance and Perspectives for Cost Effectiveness and Sustainability


Panchayat Sashastikaran an Puraskar


Project Lead Authority: Ramashray Singh
Sponsor: Ministry of Panchayati Raj, GoI

0

Preparing Smart city Development Plan based on Demographic and Socio


Project Lead Authority: Sandip Sarkar
Sponsor: UNFPA

x

Pattern of Substance Abuse among Street Children in Delhi


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

x

Knowledge Infrastructure and Human Capital: A Case Study of Tertiary Education System in India


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

x

Structural Transformation of India's Economy


Project Lead Authority: Ajit Ghose
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

x

Risk and Investment in Education


Project Lead Authority: Dr. Alok Kumar
Sponsor: IGC International Growth Centre

x

Evaluating Economic & Administrative Linkage In Determine Firm Location Choice In Hajipur – Bihar


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Florida University

x

IHD INTERNAL


Women's Status, Health and Family Planning in India


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: Population Foundation of India (PFI)

na

Preparation of Human Development Report for the State of Uttarakhand


Project Lead Authority: Alakh N Sharma
Sponsor: Government of Uttarakhand

x

Preparation of Vision Document and Policy Road Map for Incorporation of Sustainable Development Goals


Project Lead Authority: Balwant Mehta
Sponsor: Government of Uttarakhand

Project in Progress

Understanding slum formation and Designing an Urban Housing Policy for Poor in Bihar


Project Lead Authority: Indu Bala Sinha
Sponsor: University of Florida

na

Narrative and Results Framework and Traces - APMAS


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: APMAS / Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

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Solid Waste Management Under Swach Bharat Abhiyan: The Changing Role of the Informal Sector


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

na

The Political Economy of Development Naxalism and Maoism: An Exploration into a people centric Model of Development


Project Lead Authority: Prem S Vashishtha
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

na

Improving Quality of Education in Bihar


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

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Evaluation of NREGA Wells in Jharkhand


Project Lead Authority: Anjor Bhaskar
Sponsor: National Institute of Rural Development (NIRD)

The primary aim of the study was to assess the returns from investments on NREGA assets - in particular, irrigation wells constructed under NREGA in Jharkhand. In doing so, it also attempts to uncover obstacles and identify ways to improve the returns from such investments.

The study took place across 6 districts, 12 blocks and 24 panchayats in Jharkhand. A total of 987 NREGA Wells were physically verified to assess the actual status of NREGA wells. 103 owners of completed wells were interviewed to assess the returns to completed wells. In addition, nearly 46 abandoned well owners were interviewed to assess the losses due to non-completion and the reasons for such abandonment of NREGA assets.
The study found that nearly 60% of the sanctioned NREGA wells were actually complete. This is similar to the rate of completion obtained using data NREGA MIS, according to which nearly 66% of the sanctioned wells in the sample panchayats were complete. Thus, completion rates obtained through the NREGA MIS can be said to be fairly accurate.
The study tried to assess the utility and impact of the wells upon the lives of beneficiaries. Firstly, the study found that nearly 96% of all completed NREGA wells were being utilised while 95% were being utilised for irrigation. Few wells could not be utilised as they had dried up. Secondly, the study found that completed NREGA wells led to a 365% increase in annual net income from agriculture in the command area of the well (NICA). The annual average rate of return (ROR) on the expenditure incurred on completed wells was estimated to be 6.5% (i.e. the expenses incurred on constructing completed NREGA wells by the government as well as by the well owners would be recovered within 15.4 years on average). However, this figure does not account for the fact that nearly 15% of all wells are abandoned and hence give no returns to investment. On accounting for such wells, the overall ROR is estimated to be 6%. On the whole, therefore, the cost of investment (both private and public) on wells would therefore be recovered within 17 years of operation of the well. However, due to several reasons, this estimate is likely to be a severe under-estimate. Finally, the study found that 87% of the respondents with completed wells actually had to incur significant out of pocket expenses in constructing the well. Yet, nearly 96% of the owners of completed NREGA wells felt 'happy' at having constructed the well, 92% were satisfied with the quality of the well, 86% were living and eating better due to the well land 85% felt that their incomes had gone up as a result of the well.
The census of 926 wells found that 15-20% of the wells were abandoned with no likelihood of completion. Such wells bear a huge burden upon the beneficiary household. Payment delays were the single largest factor behind abandonment of wells. They contributed towards the abandonment of about 71% of the wells. Payment delays (coupled with other payment related issues such as demand for commissions/PCs or embezzlement of funds) force beneficiaries to incur significant out of pocket expenses on labour and material costs. 26% of the owners of abandoned wells said the wells remained incomplete as they could not meet these expenses.

Employment of Women through Self Helf Groups the Case Study of Odisha


Project Lead Authority:
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

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Dynamics of Change in Urban Informal Employment Insights from Panel Data of Two Indian Cities


Project Lead Authority: Amitabh Kundu
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

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An Evaluation Study of Strengthening Community Centred and gender Responsive Provisioning and Use of Sanitation Services


Project Lead Authority: Preet Rustagi
Sponsor: Centre for Advocacy and Research (CFAR)

This project aimed to undertake a midterm evaluation of the awareness-building intervention based project relating to sanitation, water and hygiene initiated by the Center for Advocacy and Research (CFAR), in collaboration with the Convergence Mission of Delhi Government for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The initiative began in June 2012 with the purpose of generating awareness, among the women and girls in the selected clusters on matters related to water, health, sanitation, hygiene, sewerage, and garbage disposal. To achieve this goal and further, create a sense of ownership within the community, the intervention called for the formation of groups that were comprised of women and subsequently, even adolescent girls. After initial activities, the project began forming women’s forums by August 2012. At the time of our midterm evaluation, there were seven women’s forums, including one adolescent group.

The quality of sanitation services, water supply, and hygiene in urban localities occupied predominantly by the poor begs for action for improvement. There are multiple fronts in these sectors which urgently require attention. For example, not only is the supply of services inadequate in general, there is also little recognition and articulation of the fact that the provision of public facilities is lacking. The question of urban health and sanitation conditions becomes especially complex because a large number of these underserved slum settlements are unauthorised and therefore, there is little community awareness about the means through which residents, can express their grievances and concerns. Moreover, the multiple authorities that operate in isolation in these areas are often not prepared to engage with the populations livings in these peripheral regions of the city.

The midterm evaluation study focused on 18 location clusters - both intensive and extensive areas - categorized based on the activities undertaken in the project. A total of 1361 households were covered in the survey. In addition, several focused group discussions (FGDs) were conducted among forum members and non-members. By covering at least one half of the households which were surveyed for the baseline, the evaluation study examines the changes over time.

Overall, access to water has improved over the intervention period. Only 15 per cent of the households had a DJB connection at home as per the baseline, which has increased now to 25 per cent in the midterm. The knowledge regarding water storage and cleanliness has improved. About 22 per cent of the households which initially did not purify water reported doing so. While boiling is the common method of purifying water, the high cost that goes towards obtaining fuel for boiling water is an important concern. Four per cent of households reported that CFAR members were instrumental in inducing this change, while other households credited ASHA workers and Anganwadi sevikas for the change.

During the intervention period, women’s groups became more proactive in demanding improved sanitation. They filed a total of 14 petitions with DUSIB related to the condition of CTCs, although many of these were redirected to the MCD. Many individuals report that they now have free access to community toilets as opposed to the base line. Midterm surveys shows that the access to sanitation improved as the proportion of households that have their own toilets increased from 20 per cent to 26 per cent, while proportion of shared toilets also increased from 2 per cent to 3 per cent. As a result, the proportion of households depending on community toilets declined from 60 per cent to 55 per cent, while the practice of open defecation, as per the stated objectives, also decreased from 18 per cent to 16 per cent.

Many households constructed toilets within their household premises, primarily to maintain their privacy as well as due to security concerns, shrinking open spaces, and high density. A few households reported that awareness campaigns had an influence on their decision. Ninety three per cent of the households felt that their social status had been improved since they became owners of a toilet.

The behavior change component on hand washing proved to be hugely successful as people now wash their hands more frequently and a larger number of them use soap while doing so. Five per cent of the respondents stated that CFAR members were their primary source of information on this practice.

Post-intervention, garbage storage practices within the community have witnessed an overall improvement. Fewer people dispose off children’s excreta in open drains. Similarly, the proportion of households that store garbage in closed containers as opposed to leaving them in the open increased from 69 per cent to 79 per cent. To allow for safer disposal, MCD vans now visit more areas that are situated away from the community dhalaos. The overall behavior change can be associated with the methods of proper waste disposal that were emphasised in the weekly group meetings and IEC (information, education, and communication) materials.

Over the intervention period, the use of sanitary napkins increased drastically and the credit for this change goes to improved literacy, awareness, and availability. About one fourth of the respondents suggested that the increase in napkin use is due to the spread of literacy. One third attributed awareness generation as an important reason and another one third stated the better availability increased the use of napkins.

Impact of Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana Scheme on Poor Household


Project Lead Authority: Swati Dutta
Sponsor: Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

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EMERGE


Project Lead Authority: Mythri Prasad
Sponsor: Center on Gender Equity & Health, University of California, San Diego

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